- Slides: 15
Ancient China and India
The Qin Dynasty During a warring state period in 300 BC the state of Qin rose to power ◦ By 221 the last rival state fell and the Qin state was the first power to create a unified Chinese empire Harsh Qin Rule ◦ Shi Huangdi with his advisers Hanfeizi and Li Si founded the school of philosophy called Legalism which required a powerful government to rule ◦ Legalism rejected Confucianism which taught that rulers should be virtuous and be a good example ◦ Legalism relied on hard punishments because it believed people we naturally bad ◦ Shi Huangdi built a strong centralized gov’t ◦ Emperor
The Qin Dynasty Qin Reforms ◦ He unified China ◦ Laws, language, and money ◦ Massive building projects Qin Growth and Defense ◦ Built the Great Wall of China Fall of the Qin ◦ After Shi Huangdi died in 210 BC the dynasty fell ◦ Peasant rebelled and nobles joined in to regain their land ◦ Peasant leader Liu Bang defeated Qin forces and began the Han dynasty
The Han Dynasty ruled in China from 206 BC -220 AD, more than 400 years. ◦ They are known as one of the greatest Chinese Dynasties Restoring Control ◦ Bang aka Gaozu defeated the Qin and proved he ruled with the mandate of heaven ◦ The belief that when one ruler was defeated they lost the support the gods and the new rules was selected by the gods ◦ Bang gained the support of the people by loosening harsh laws and lowering taxes ◦ He also gave land to his military and family ◦ He kept a centralized gov’t and grew the bureaucracy ◦ He selected Confucian scholars to be his adviser ◦ Although he still kept some legalistic policies
The Han Dynasty The Greatest Han Emperor ◦ Wudi is considered the greatest Han ruler ◦ Promoted economic growth ◦ New roads and canals for farmers and merchants ◦ To raise the money he set up a monopoly on salt, iron, and alcohol ◦ He took land for the large owners ◦ Put limits on merchants to decrease the power and wealth being concentrated to one group ◦ Confucianism became the value system ◦ Developed a civil services system ◦ Candidates for a gov’t job had to pass an exam in a Confucian class ◦ Since only the wealthy could afford classes to study they continued to control the gov’t ◦ Civil servant exam stayed in placed until 1912
The Han Dynasty Han Decline ◦ Court intrigues increased and lead to weak rulers ◦ The gap between the rich and poor grew, taxes rose to cover the cost of running a vast empire. ◦ Many peasant lost their land because of taxes, with fewer people to tax the Han’s rose taxes and the situation worsened ◦ Rebellion occurred and the power shifted to local warlords and entered the period of disunion that lasted for 350 years.
India’s Social Structure ◦ In 2000 BC a new group took over in India the Aryans, we do not know much about them other then what is in their sacred text the Vedas ◦ Under their rule each state had a raja- warlord ◦ Vedic society was divided into 4 social classes called varnas- each varna had a particular role in society ◦ Each varna made up a part of a single body ◦ The part of the body the varna was from tied to their specific duty ◦ Over the centuries the four varnas were divided into 100’s of smaller divisions called castes(Social Hierarchy) ◦ Membership in caste determined what job you held and who you could marry ◦ A social hierarchy developed that come castes had more privileges than others ◦ People not part of the castes system were called untouchables and were protected by the caste laws
The Varnas Brahmins- were the highest ranking varna, and the smallest numerically. Brahmins were Vedic Society priests and teachers Kshatriyas- were warriors and rulers Valsyas-were the common people of Vedic society- traders, farmers, herders ect. . Sudras- were servants who waited upon members of the other varnas
The Mauryan Empire By the 300 s BC there were many small kingdoms across India, all with their own ruler One of the stronger kingdoms, Magadha with it’s leader Maurya began conquering surrounding kingdoms His quest led to the India’s first empire- The Mauryan empire Rise of the Mauryan Empire ◦ Before The Mauryan Empire, Alexander the Great conquered part of India ◦ However his troops wanted to return home and left only 4 years later ◦ This inspired Maurya to build his own army and conquer India.
The Mauryan Empire Mauryan Rule ◦ Like the Qin, Maurya est. a strong centralized gov’t ◦ Maurya relied on his closest adviser Kautilya, who was a Brahmin ◦ Kautilya advised him to break the empire up into districts and have loyal relatives rule the regions. ◦ He created a large bureaucracy ◦ He also implemented secret spies to make sure no one tried to overthrow the emperor ◦ Emperor owned all the land farmers rented it from him and paid taxes ◦ The money funded the massive army
The Mauryan Empire Rule under Ashoka ◦ Maurya gave up his throne in 301 and became a monk, his son and then grandson Ashoka became emperor- one of India’s greatest rulers ◦ After viewing so much violence he became Buddhist and started promoting policies of right conduct ◦ His conversion helped to spread Buddhism across India ◦ He worked to improve the lives of his people ◦ Created hospitals, vets, new wells dug, and built more roads, built houses for people to rest on their travels
The Mauryan Empire Decline of the Mauryan Empire ◦ ◦ Ashoka died in 232 BC His sons battled for control and weakened the empire Regional powers began to rise and war lords took over India was once again divided into regions
The Gupta Empire Rise of the Gupta Empire ◦ ◦ India remained divided into regions for more than 400 years In 320 AD the Gupta dynasty took over Reunited India and grew Hinduism The founders of the Gupta Dynasty was Chandra Gupta I
The Gupta Empire India Under Gupta ◦ Less centralized ◦ Divided main part of the empire into units and allowed Royal officials to rule ◦ In distant regions they allowed local rulers to rule and just had to pay tribute to the Gupta ◦ Chandra Gupta II expanded India to its greatest extent and strengthened their economy ◦ The Gupta’s help to support and grow Hinduism however they also supported Buddhism and Jainism
The Gupta Empire End of the Gupta Rule ◦ Because of loose control over conquered areas the Gupta empire began to weaken ◦ The Central Asian nomads the White Huns began to invade ◦ This stopped trade and lost them money ◦ In 550 AD Guptas lost control and India was divided into regions