THE QIN DYNASTY 221 BCE 206 BCE Administrative

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THE QIN DYNASTY 221 BCE – 206 BCE Administrative Institutions l Projection of Military

THE QIN DYNASTY 221 BCE – 206 BCE Administrative Institutions l Projection of Military Power l Success through trade and economic integration l Social Structure l Labor Systems l Role of patriarchy l Reasons for decline l

Setting the Stage: The Qin Previous rulers: Zhou Dynasty l Zhou ruled from 1027

Setting the Stage: The Qin Previous rulers: Zhou Dynasty l Zhou ruled from 1027 BCE to 256 BCE. l “Warring States” period: 475 BCE-221 BCE. l Feudal society… the Qin would emerge and unify China. l

China under the Qin dynasty, 221 -207 B. C. E.

China under the Qin dynasty, 221 -207 B. C. E.

The First Emperor Qin Shihuangdi (r. 221 -210 BCE) founds new dynasty as “First

The First Emperor Qin Shihuangdi (r. 221 -210 BCE) founds new dynasty as “First Emperor” l Dynasty ends in 207, but sets dramatic precedent l Basis of rule: centralized bureaucracy l Massive public works begun l l Precursor to Great Wall

NEW TECHNIQUES OF IMPERIAL ADMINISTRTION

NEW TECHNIQUES OF IMPERIAL ADMINISTRTION

In order to organize their subjects, rulers created “administrative institutions”. l l l Centralized

In order to organize their subjects, rulers created “administrative institutions”. l l l Centralized Government Abolishes old “feudal states” and divides China into 36 military districts, each ruled by appointed officials. Use of inspectors (spies) to keep local officials in check. Shi Huangdi forces all “noble families” to live in the capital in Xianyang. Nobles land was divided up amongst the peasants who had to pay very high taxes.

LEGALISM Shi Huangdi adopts Legalism as his primary ruling philospohy. l Read “Memorandum on

LEGALISM Shi Huangdi adopts Legalism as his primary ruling philospohy. l Read “Memorandum on the Burning of Books” p. 80 in the Duiker book. l Discuss the questions with your group members. l

Imperial governments projected “military power” over larger areas. Example: The Great Wall l Needed

Imperial governments projected “military power” over larger areas. Example: The Great Wall l Needed to prevent raids from nomads to the North. l What did the “Great Wall” say to outsiders? l Also builds numerous roads and canals to help improve transportation. l

The Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China

Promotion of trade and economic integration help promote the success of empires. l Standardized:

Promotion of trade and economic integration help promote the success of empires. l Standardized: l l Laws Currencies Weights and measures Script l l Previously: single language written in distinct scripts Building of roads, bridges Government Monopolies: mining, wine making, and salt distribution. Private commerce heavily taxed.

Hierarchical “social structures” The Emperor l Landlords (ruled over the 36 military districts) l

Hierarchical “social structures” The Emperor l Landlords (ruled over the 36 military districts) l Merchants l Peasants l

“Labor Systems” were used to for food production, public works projects, and to reward

“Labor Systems” were used to for food production, public works projects, and to reward the elites. l l Forced labor used for most projects such as the Great Wall and “Terra Cotta” soldiers. Peasants were required to serve months at a time. While peasants did receive land from the new emperor, they were taxed heavily.

TERRA COTTA SOLDIERS

TERRA COTTA SOLDIERS

Patriarchal Rule Family roles similar to those found in other early civilizations. l Emphasis

Patriarchal Rule Family roles similar to those found in other early civilizations. l Emphasis on unity and the power of the husband father. l Women had clearly defined roles. Generally were subordinate. l Women could and did exercise influence behind the scenes. l

REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF THE QIN Attacks on intellectuals. 2) Heavy tax burden

REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF THE QIN Attacks on intellectuals. 2) Heavy tax burden placed on the peasants to fund military conquests and public projects. 3) Brutal rule EXAMPLES: 476 scholars buried alive, book burnings…. 1)