Zoroastrianism Sikhism Zoroastrianism Beginnings Zoroastrianism was founded by

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Zoroastrianism & Sikhism

Zoroastrianism & Sikhism

Zoroastrianism: Beginnings ∗ Zoroastrianism was founded by a prophet named Zoroaster (also known as

Zoroastrianism: Beginnings ∗ Zoroastrianism was founded by a prophet named Zoroaster (also known as Zarathustra) in ancient Iran 3500 years ago. ∗ Zoroaster rejected the polytheistic religion of Bronze Age Iran with the “oppressive” class structure. He also opposed the sacrifice of animals.

Zoroastrianism: Gods ∗ Zoroastrian religion has one supreme god, called Ahura Mazda, or “Wise

Zoroastrianism: Gods ∗ Zoroastrian religion has one supreme god, called Ahura Mazda, or “Wise Lord. ” ∗ Although Zoroastrianism only has one supreme god, there is an example of dualism in their beliefs in the form of Aura Mainyu, the spirit and promoter of evil, and the antithesis of Spenta Mainyu, the spirit and promoter of goodness. ∗ These two spirits manifested from Ahura Mazda, which, in Zoroastrian religion, is the entirety of the universe.

Zoroastrianism: Sacred Books ∗ The sacred book of Zoroastrianism religion is called the Avesta.

Zoroastrianism: Sacred Books ∗ The sacred book of Zoroastrianism religion is called the Avesta. The book can be split into two main scriptures. ∗ The older and more prominent of the two is called the Gathas. The Gathas are composed of 17 hymns that were thought to be composed by Zoroaster himself. ∗ The younger version of the Avesta is similar to the older version, though the new version contains myths and stories.

Zoroastrianism: Method of Salvation ∗ Upon death, Zoroastrianism describes a “Bridge of Judgment” which

Zoroastrianism: Method of Salvation ∗ Upon death, Zoroastrianism describes a “Bridge of Judgment” which all humans must cross. Human’s actions, under free will, determine where the bridge will lead them. ∗ They are greeted on the bridge and taken to the end of it. People who are good of heart are taken to paradise, while those who are immoral are cast into the abyss of hell. ∗ Zoroastrian belief is central around good morality- Good thoughts, deeds, and words.

Zoroastrianism: Core Beliefs ∗ ∗ ∗ Belief in duality of existence The world is

Zoroastrianism: Core Beliefs ∗ ∗ ∗ Belief in duality of existence The world is a battle ground between good and evil Judgment day at the end of the 3000 year cycle Sin by not following religious teachings Death is the spirit leaving the body and going to the afterlife

Zoroastrianism: Religious Practices ∗ ∗ Worship includes prayer and symbolic ceremonies Don’t usually accept

Zoroastrianism: Religious Practices ∗ ∗ Worship includes prayer and symbolic ceremonies Don’t usually accept converts Zoroastrians aren’t supposed to proselytize They are dedicated to a three fold system ∗ “good thoughts, good words, good deeds

Zoroastrianism: Practices (cont. ) ∗ Neither burial or cremation was practiced in Zoroastrianism, instead,

Zoroastrianism: Practices (cont. ) ∗ Neither burial or cremation was practiced in Zoroastrianism, instead, the bodies of the dead were taken to a “Tower of Silence” where they were laid out in the sun where they would be devoured by vultures. This was because of their emphasis on purity. ∗ The place in which worship took place were called “Fire Temples. ” Fire was an important symbol in Zoroastrian religion, as it meant light, illumination of the mind, and regarded as visible signs of the divine

Zoroastrianism: Important Terms ∗ Humata hukhta hvarshta- good thoughts, good words, good deeds ∗

Zoroastrianism: Important Terms ∗ Humata hukhta hvarshta- good thoughts, good words, good deeds ∗ Navjote- Zoroastrian bar mitzvah ∗ Faravahar- ancient Persian symbol for guardian angel ∗ Sudreh- religious clothing Zoroastrians wear

Zoroastrianism: Common Symbols ∗ The Faravahar ∗ Fire- the symbol of fire represents where

Zoroastrianism: Common Symbols ∗ The Faravahar ∗ Fire- the symbol of fire represents where Zoroastrians worship in fire temples

Sikhism: Beginnings ∗ Sikhism was born in Punjab (present-day India and Pakistan) ∗ It

Sikhism: Beginnings ∗ Sikhism was born in Punjab (present-day India and Pakistan) ∗ It was created in reaction to conflict between Hinduism and Islam ∗ It started in 1500 CE, when the Guru Nanak began teaching faith that was distinction from the two religions ∗ 9 more Gurus were the successors of Guru Nanak in the subsequent centuries ∗ These Gurus helped spread it throughout the community.

Sikhism: Gods ∗ Is it a monotheistic religion, meaning that they believe in only

Sikhism: Gods ∗ Is it a monotheistic religion, meaning that they believe in only one god ∗ God is without form, or gender ∗ Everyone is equal before God and everyone has direct access to God ∗ Religious rituals and superstitions have no value

Sikhism: Sacred Book ∗ ∗ They have two: The Adi Granth, meaning “First Book”

Sikhism: Sacred Book ∗ ∗ They have two: The Adi Granth, meaning “First Book” The Sahib Granth, meaning “Lordly Book” They were both compiled by Guru Arjan , the fifth Guru, in the 1600 s

Sikhism: Method of Salvation ∗ Sikhs believe that evil is human selfishness ∗ Salvation

Sikhism: Method of Salvation ∗ Sikhs believe that evil is human selfishness ∗ Salvation is reached by being honest, and meditating ∗ If good works are performed well, the person is released from reincarnation and becomes one with god.

Sikhism: Core Beliefs ∗ Monotheistic religion ∗ God is without form or gender ∗

Sikhism: Core Beliefs ∗ Monotheistic religion ∗ God is without form or gender ∗ Everyone has direct access to god ∗ Everyone is equal before god ∗ Honesty and care for others ∗ Religious rituals and superstitions have no value and are frowned upon ∗ Keeping god in mind at all time The Five Vices ∗ ∗ ∗ Lust Greed Attachment to material things Anger Pride

Sikhism: Religious Practices ∗ Amrit Ceremony: the initiation rite introduced by Gobid Singh ∗

Sikhism: Religious Practices ∗ Amrit Ceremony: the initiation rite introduced by Gobid Singh ∗ After the ceremony, the initiates become baptized Sikhs, take new names, and wear the 5 Ks. ∗ Gurdwara: the place were Sikhs come together to worship ∗ Sikh baby rites: ∗ A. Pregnant women pray ∗ B. When the baby is born, the words of Mool Mantar (a prayer) are recited to the child ∗ Weddings: Sikh marriage is called Anand Karaj ∗ Marriage is forbidden until the person is able to take responsibilities of married life

Sikhism: Holy Days ∗ Diwali (the festival of light): this celebrates the release from

Sikhism: Holy Days ∗ Diwali (the festival of light): this celebrates the release from prison of the sixth Guru (Guru Hargobind, 1619) ∗ Hola Mahalla: it occurs on the first day of the lunar month Chet in Nanakshahi calendar ∗ Today, it is celebrated by watching martial arts parades, poetry, and music ∗ Gurpurbs: it is a festival that celebrates the lives of the Gurus ∗ Vaisakhi & Khalsa: it is the New Year’s festival, which occurs of April 13 th or 14 th , celebrating the birth of Sikhism in 1699

Sikhism: Important Terms Five Vices: actions that should be avoided ∗ Nam Japna: keeping

Sikhism: Important Terms Five Vices: actions that should be avoided ∗ Nam Japna: keeping god in mind at all times ∗ Kirt Karna: having an honest lifestyle (avoiding gambling, begging, alcohol, and tobacco) ∗ Vand Chhakna: sharing with others ∗ ∗ The 5 Ks were symbols that identified members of Khalsa 1. Kesh (uncut hair) holiness, strength, and denial of pride 2. Kara (steel bracelet) restraint and gentility 3. Kanga (wooden comb) clean mind and body 4. Kaccha (cotton underwear) chastity 5. Kirpan (steel sword) the characteristics of a warrior

Sikhism: Common Symbols This symbol is called Khanda. It is the symbol of The

Sikhism: Common Symbols This symbol is called Khanda. It is the symbol of The Sikhs and reflects fundamental concepts of Sikhism. This symbol is called Nishan Sahib. It is a flag that is seen at the temples. This is the Ik Oknar, which means “there is only one god”

Sources ∗ V, J. (n. d. ). Zoroastrianism - Main Beliefs. Retrieved October 27,

Sources ∗ V, J. (n. d. ). Zoroastrianism - Main Beliefs. Retrieved October 27, 2014, from http: //www. hinduwebsite. com/zoroastrianism/beliefs. asp ∗ Robinson, B. (2012, January 25). Zorastrianism: Holy text, beliefs and practices. Retrieved October 27, 2014, from http: //www. religioustolerance. org/zoroastr 2. htm ∗ Zoroastrianism Symbols. (n. d. ). Retrieved October 27, 2014, from http: //www. religionfacts. com/zoroastrianism_symbols. htm ∗ Zoroastrianism. (n. d. ). Retrieved October 27, 2014, from http: //www. bbc. co. uk/religions/zoroastrian/ ∗ Contractor, D. , & Contractor, H. (2003, January 1). Theosophical Society in America. Retrieved October 27, 2014, from https: //www. theosophical. org/publications/quest-magazine/42 publications/quest-magazine/1231 -zoroastrianism-history-beliefs-andpractices

More Sources ∗ Origins of Sikhism. (2009, September 30). Retrieved October 27, 2014, from

More Sources ∗ Origins of Sikhism. (2009, September 30). Retrieved October 27, 2014, from http: //www. bbc. co. uk/religions/sikhism/history_1. shtml ∗ Http: //www. bbc. co. uk/religions/sikhism/beliefs. shtml. (2009, September 24). Retrieved October 27, 2014, from http: //www. bbc. co. uk/religions/sikhism/beliefs. shtml ∗ Sikhism: Amrit Ceremony. (2009, October 27). Retrieved October 27, 2014, from http: //www. bbc. co. uk/religions/sikhism/ritesrituals/amrit. shtml ∗ Sikhism: The Gurdwara. (2009, October 27). Retrieved October 27, 2014, from http: //www. bbc. co. uk/religions/sikhism/ritesrituals/gurdwara_1. sh tml ∗ Sikhism: Religion. (2009, October 27). Retrieved October 27, 2014, from http: //www. bbc. co. uk/religions/sikhism/ritesrituals/worship. shtml

Even More Sources ∗ ∗ Sikhism: Baby Rites. (2009, October 27). Retrieved October 27,

Even More Sources ∗ ∗ Sikhism: Baby Rites. (2009, October 27). Retrieved October 27, 2014, from http: //www. bbc. co. uk/religions/sikhism/ritesrituals/babyrites. sht ml Singh, G. (2009, October 1). Sikhism: Weddings. Retrieved October 27, 2014, from http: //www. bbc. co. uk/religions/sikhism/ritesrituals/weddings. sht ml Sikhism: Diwali. (2011, October 20). Retrieved October 28, 2014, from http: //www. bbc. co. uk/religions/sikhism/holydays/diwali. shtml Sikhism: The Five Ks. (2009, September 29). Retrieved October 26, 2014, from http: //www. bbc. co. uk/religions/sikhism/customs/fiveks. shtml