Your Body Mind and Stress 1 Body Image

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Your Body, Mind, and Stress 1

Your Body, Mind, and Stress 1

Body Image • The stress of not measuring up • Forgetting about what happens

Body Image • The stress of not measuring up • Forgetting about what happens inside 2

The Physiology of Stress • • • The body as a system Fight or

The Physiology of Stress • • • The body as a system Fight or flight General Adaptation Syndrome Stress and disease Mental Health Appreciation for our bodies 3

The Body As A System 4

The Body As A System 4

Fight or Flight • Walter Cannon • Four stages: – Stage one: Stimulus –

Fight or Flight • Walter Cannon • Four stages: – Stage one: Stimulus – Stage two: Threat determination – Stage three: Arousal – Stage four: Return to homeostasis 5

Bodily Systems Activated By Stressors • Autonomic nervous system • Endocrine system 6

Bodily Systems Activated By Stressors • Autonomic nervous system • Endocrine system 6

Autonomic Nervous System • Stressor Adrenal glands secrete adrenaline • Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic •

Autonomic Nervous System • Stressor Adrenal glands secrete adrenaline • Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic • Sympathetic Physiological response – – – Heart rate increases Muscles tense Blood pressure rises Pupils dilate Breathing increases Perspiration 7

Endocrine System Stressor Hypothalamus CRF released Pituitary gland ACTH Bloodstream Adrenal glands Produce adrenaline

Endocrine System Stressor Hypothalamus CRF released Pituitary gland ACTH Bloodstream Adrenal glands Produce adrenaline and glucocorticoids Physiological response 8

General Adaptation Syndrome • Hans Selye • Three stages – Stage one: Alarm –

General Adaptation Syndrome • Hans Selye • Three stages – Stage one: Alarm – Stage two: Resistance – Stage three: Exhaustion 9

Systems Affected By Stress • Immune system • Cardiovascular system • Gastrointestinal system •

Systems Affected By Stress • Immune system • Cardiovascular system • Gastrointestinal system • Muscles • Skin • Sexual reproduction 10

Immune System • Immediate, very brief enhancement of immunity • Prolonged stress Immunity suppression

Immune System • Immediate, very brief enhancement of immunity • Prolonged stress Immunity suppression 11

Cardiovascular System • Increased blood pressure • Cumulative effects 12

Cardiovascular System • Increased blood pressure • Cumulative effects 12

Gastrointestinal System • Ulcers • Diarrhea and Constipation • IBS • Appetite – Decreases

Gastrointestinal System • Ulcers • Diarrhea and Constipation • IBS • Appetite – Decreases w/ one long, continual stressor – Increases w/ lots of short stressors 13

Muscles • Tension • Bracing • Orthopedic problems 14

Muscles • Tension • Bracing • Orthopedic problems 14

Skin • Perspiration • Acne 15

Skin • Perspiration • Acne 15

Sexual Reproduction • Males – Decreased testosterone production – Difficulty achieving and maintaining an

Sexual Reproduction • Males – Decreased testosterone production – Difficulty achieving and maintaining an erection – Decreased sex drive – Impotency and Premature ejaculation associated with stress • Females – Decreased estrogen production – Disrupted menstrual cycle – Disrupted libido – Possibly less likely to conceive – Increased rate of miscarriage 16

Diseases Related to Stress • • • Hypertension Stroke Coronary Heart Disease Ulcers Migraine

Diseases Related to Stress • • • Hypertension Stroke Coronary Heart Disease Ulcers Migraine Headaches Tension Headaches Allergies Rheumatoid Arthritis Backache TMJ Syndrome 17

For More Information… • Robert M. Sapolsky – Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers: An

For More Information… • Robert M. Sapolsky – Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers: An updated guide to stress-related diseases, and coping 18

The Importance of Balance! 19

The Importance of Balance! 19

Mental Health • Mental Health Disorders associated with Anxiety • Proceed with caution! •

Mental Health • Mental Health Disorders associated with Anxiety • Proceed with caution! • Mental health stigma in our society • Brief overview of disorders 20

Acute Stress Disorder and PTSD • Occur in response to extreme stresses or trauma

Acute Stress Disorder and PTSD • Occur in response to extreme stresses or trauma • Acute Stress Disorder: Symptoms last no more than 4 weeks • PTSD: Onset can be delayed • Symptoms: Extreme fear, reexperiencing the event, dissociation, detachment, sleep loss, irritability 21

Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder • Symptoms of Panic Attacks – Palpitations, sweating, trembling

Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder • Symptoms of Panic Attacks – Palpitations, sweating, trembling or shaking, sensations of shortness of breath or smothering, feeling of choking, chest pain or discomfort, nausea or abdominal distress, dizziness or lightheadedness, derealization or depersonalization, fear of losing control or ‘going crazy, ’ fear of dying, paresthesias, and chills or hot flashes • Panic Disorder – Recurrent Panic attacks 22

Generalized Anxiety Disorder • Excessive anxiety and worry • Must last more than six

Generalized Anxiety Disorder • Excessive anxiety and worry • Must last more than six months • At least three of these symptoms: – – – Edginess or restlessness Easily tired Difficulty concentrating Irritability Muscle tension Difficulty sleeping 23

Phobias • Persistent fear of some specific event, object, or situation • Can lead

Phobias • Persistent fear of some specific event, object, or situation • Can lead to symptoms of a panic attack • May take great lengths to avoid object of fear • Social Phobia 24

Depression • Changes in weight or appetite, sleep disturbances, loss of energy, feelings of

Depression • Changes in weight or appetite, sleep disturbances, loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness, inability to concentrate, thoughts of death 25

Treatment approaches • Psychotherapy • Medication • Alternative treatments 26

Treatment approaches • Psychotherapy • Medication • Alternative treatments 26