- Slides: 56
Causes of WWII • 1) Great Depression: Worldwide economic crisis puts too much stress on many countries • 2) Fascism: rise of aggressive dictators in Europe and Japan • 3) League of Nations: League was too weak to stop Japanese, Italian, & German aggression • 4) Appeasement: encouraged Hitler, allowed German Army to become strong • 5) Treaty of Versailles: Ruined German economy, led to aggression by Germany, Japan, Italy
The World in the 1930’s • The Soviet Union • Ruled by dictator Joseph Stalin • Totalitarian government: the government and every aspect of the peoples’ lives is controlled by one party • 5 year plans forced USSR to modernize • Execution & torture of political enemies
• Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini in power • Fascism = militarism, extreme nationalism (my country is always right) and total loyalty to the leader “Il Duce” • Invaded and took over Ethiopia; 1935 Italy
Germany • Germany kept taking more and more land from its neighbors while the League of Nations did nothing. Rhineland, Sudetenland, Austria • Adolph Hitler & Nazi Party came to power by blaming Jews for Treaty of Versailles along with most of Germany's problems • Fascist Government • German invasion of Poland caused WWII in Europe
Japan Depression hurt Japanese economy Military took over Emperor Hirohito Superior Japanese would conquer all of Asia Invaded Manchuria, China; 1931
n n USA President: FDR Foreign policy of isolationism (WWI) Focused on Western Hemisphere Good Neighbor policy in Latin America "In the field of world policy I would dedicate this nation to the policy of the good neighbor-the neighbor who resolutely respects himself and, because he does so, respects the rights of others. "
USA n Good Neighbor policy in Latin America: No more military interventions in L. A. n Marines out of Haiti & Nicaragua n Platt Amendment (Cuba) annulled… kept base at Guantanamo n
WWII Begins • 1937; Asia: • Japan begins total war with China • Nanking: 300, 000 civilians & POW’s killed in 6 weeks
• Hitler kept Appeasement at Munich taking more and more land • UK & France thought he would stop • Agreed to give Peace in Czechoslovaki our time. a to Germany Sucker!
War in Europe • Summer, 1939: Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact • September, 1939: -Blitzkrieg- Germany Invades Poland. – England & France declare war on Germany & its allies; Italy & Japan. • 1940 Germany Invades France
Nazi-Soviet Non. Aggression Pact
German Invasion of Poland
Germany Conquers France
Axis vs. Allies Axis Japan Allies France Italy Russia Germany USA Great Britain
US Moves Toward War • 1) Cash & Carry, Old Destroyers to UK. • 2) More $ for the military, 1 st peace-time draft declared • 3) June 1941: Hitler launches surprise attack on Soviet Union breaking nonaggression pact • 4) Lend-Lease Act: March 1941, allowed US to sell or lease military supplies to the Allies including U. S. S. R. – Is this isolationism?
On December 7 th 1941 the Japanese Navy attacked the US Naval Base at Pearl Harbor, Hawai’i
The U. S. S. Arizona continues to leak oil in this 2004 photograph
WHY did the Japanese attack the United States?
Because… n 1) The U. S, was conducting an embargo which kept the Japanese from acquiring the raw materials and petroleum they needed to keep their war machine going n 2) The Japanese knew that war with the U. S. was inevitable, so they hoped to destroy our navy before the war started.
Reactions to the attack • US citizens want revenge
Reactions to the attack • Congress declares war on Japan • Germany and Italy declare war on US
Major Battles & Turning Points Stalingrad • Siege of Stalingrad: Nazis running out of oil. Need to get oil in Caspian Sea. Can’t conquer Stalingrad. 900 day siege, Nazis fail. 1 million Soviets die.
Stalingrad • Important because the Soviets did not allow the Nazis to get the oil that their war machine needed. • Tide of war began turning in favor of the Allies
The Japanese in the Pacific • By 1942 the Japanese controlled much of the Pacific • US Navy (aircraft carriers) started to turn the tide at the Battle of Wake Island
Battle of El Alamein • British defeat Germans in Africa • Beat German General Erwin Rommel • Saved supply route • Cut Nazis off from oil Allied Supplies
Invasion of Italy, 1943 • The Allies had defeated Axis forces in North Africa and Italy.
Invasion of Normandy (D-Day), 1944 • Dwight D. Eisenhower was in command of the Allied forces as they invade France to free it from German control • Created 2 Front war for Germany • Germany will soon be overpowered by Allies
Battle of the Bulge/ Hitler surrenders
Allies Win, FDR Dies • 1944: British, Americans, Soviets all close in on Berlin • Hitler commits suicide in bunker, Germans surrender. • FDR wins re-election in 1944, dies in 1945. Harry S Truman becomes President
War in the Pacific • A. US Goals: – i. Regain the Philippines – ii. Invade the Japanese Islands
War in the Pacific… • B. Island Hopping: invade Japan by capturing islands in the Pacific along the way
Island Hopping • i. Navajo code-talkers help US forces communicate without Japanese interception
Island Hopping • ii. Gen. Mac. Arthur leads US forces to victory in Philippines, Iwo Jima, & Okinawa
II. Surrender of Japan a. Potsdam Declaration: Allies demand unconditional surrender or Japan will face, “prompt and utter destruction. ” b. Enola Gay drops 1 st atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan; 70, 000 people killed instantly. 3 days later another a-bomb dropped on Nagasaki. 40, 000 people killed instantly. Many more people die later from radiation poisoning.
The Atomic Bomb • The Japanese surrendered on August 14, 1945. • This was called V-J day-for “Victory in Japan. ” • World War II is finally over.
• 6 million Jews, 5 million Gypsies, communist, mentally & physically disabled, POW’s, etc. • Over 11 million people systematically murdered by the Nazi regime of Germany The Holocaust
The Holocaust • Allied soldiers found these concentration camps as they liberated Europe in 1945. • Many could not believe their eyes. • “They were dirty, starved skeletons with torn clothes…. It is unbelievable how any human can treat others as they were treated. ”
The Nuremberg Trials • War crimes trials • 1945 -1946: The Allies put Nazi leaders on trial for the atrocities of the Holocaust • “I was just following orders” not an excuse • 12 Nazi leaders hanged for their crimes
Compare and Contrast Relocation/internment camps and Concentration camps? Working with a partner Use a Venn diagram and list how they are the same and how they are different.