- Slides: 42
WWI EQ: How did WWI begin, and what were conditions like in Europe? Write all RED or YELLOW text
Standards Content Standard 2: The student will analyze the expanding role of the United States in international affairs as America was transformed into a world power in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries, 1890 to 1920. 3. Evaluate the long-term impact of America’s entry into World War I on national politics, the economy, and society. A. Summarize the transformation of the United States from a position of neutrality to engagement in World War I including the Zimmerman Note and the threats to international trade caused by unrestricted submarine warfare. B. Analyze the experiences of the war’s homefront including the use of propaganda, women’s increased role in industry, the marshaling of industrial production, the Great Migration, the institution of a draft, and the suppression of individual liberties resulting in the First Red Scare. C. Cite specific textual and visual evidence to examine Wilson’s foreign policy as proposed in his Fourteen Points and the reasons for the nation’s return to isolationism including the rejection of the League of Nations.
1 st World War in history • Great War or War to End all War • Not called WWI until after WWII • Total war • Involved 60 nations and 6 continents
Cost of War • $400 billion • $10 million dollars an hour 16 million deaths • First war of the Industrial Revolution…… New Weapons vs old tactics fighting
The Real Causes of the War Imperialism- European powers were going to all parts of the world to gain land. Africa, Asia, The Pacific By 1910, the most desirable colonies had been taken. Germany envied France and Britain b/c they had the most richest colonies. They soon realized that the only way to get land in Africa was to take it away from the colonizers.
European nations competing for colonies around the world…. . Imperialism Cartoo European gr b
Cartoon. European grab bag
Cartoon. European grab bag
Nationalism 2 forms- 1: to act in the country’s own national interest. Ex: Alsace-Lorraine-strip of land on the boarder of France and Germany. Had been taken by Germany in 1871 and France was expecting to gain it back. Germany did not want to give it up. This caused problems in their relationship.
Self –Determination: The longing for an ethnic minority independence in a nation where there are many different/diverse groups. Ex: Austria-Hungary- Hungarians and German speaking Austrians governed millions of Czechs, Slovaks, Poles Italians, Romanians and Serbs. These different groups wanted their own independent self government and lands. This often caused conflict within the nation itself.
Militarism Building up a nation’s military for war and giving them more power than the government. Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Russia, and USA Spend large sums of money on new weapons and warships. All of these countries were preparing for war.
Alliances • European nations began forming military alliances with one another to maintain a balance of power ……. . Triple Alliance Central Powers Triple Entente Allied Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Empire Bulgaria Great Britain France Russia
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand’s funeral procession Garvillo Princip, a Serbian nationalist assassinated the Archduke. He was trying to gain allowances for his fellow Serbs who lived under Austrian rule. Archduke Franz Ferdinand his family. Archduke was heir to the throne in the Austrian Hungarian Empire. His assassination June 28, 1914 eventually led to WWI. franz
Alliance Chain Reaction When the Archduke was assassinated, Bosnia along with Serbia were annexed to Austria-Hungary was convinced Serbia has something to do with the killings. They used this excuse to declare war on Serbia on July 28, 1914. This set off the chain reaction of alliances throughout Europe.
July 29, 1914 - (Russia was Serbia’s protector) began mobilization. Germany demanded Russia stop. They didn’t. Germany declared war on Russia’s ally France declared war on Germany declares war on Belgium. Great Britain declared war on Germany.
Schlieffen Plan Germany’s plan for a Quick sweep through France to knock the French out of the war then turn east and defeat Russia. Unsuccessful Germany is between France and Russia. This plan was put in order to avoid fighting both countries at the same time.
Germany had to pass through neutral Belgium to get to France Belgium was neutral. Germany hoped Britain would stay out of the war. The invasion of Belgium brought Britain into the war. 1 week after the conflict started all of Europe’s great powers were involved.
Central Powers Allies Germany Russia Austria-Hungary France Bulgaria Serbia Great Britain
Archduke and Wife Assassinated Germany Demands Russia Stop Austria-Hungary Declares war on Serbia July 28, 1914 Russian’s ally France readies troops Russia Begins Mobilization Germany Declares war on Russia July 29, 1914 August 1, 1914 Germany’s Schlieffen Plan Britain Enters War after invasion of Belgium August 4, 1914 Central Powers and Allies Formed
Deadly Technology Leads to Stalemate- Both sides can’t gain the advantage. Germany and France and Britain 1914 Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria join Central Powers Italy and Romania join Allies
Central Powers Allies Germany Russia Austria-Hungary France Ottoman Empire Serbia Bulgaria Great Britain Italy Romania
Deadly Defensive Technology Machine guns and rapid fire artillery Air Planes Zeppelins Tanks Battle of Somme in 1916 British troops lost 20, 000 troops in one day. Grenades Submarines Poison Gas
Trench Warfare Trench foot Contracted lice from rats Constant fear No man’s land Casualties (French had 1, 000 casualties in first 3 months of war)
American Response Some felt personally involved b/c 92 million were immigrants or children of immigrants. Germans and Irish for Central Powers Most Americans for Allies President Wilson wanted Americans to remain neutral.
• Panama Canal was completed in August of 1914 just a week before WWI began in Europe. • Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912. • Americans were shocked by the outbreak of war but…………. . it was in Europe. • US was officially NEUTRAL
American Response American Neutrality- Influenced by trade Preparedness Movement- Be ready for war. Patriotic education (Propaganda) Peace Movement- Progressives, social reformers and women. (Women marching down streets proclaiming peace).
American Opinions 3 groups Isolationists- Stay out of war Interventionists- U. S. should intervene on side of Allies Internationalists- Get involved only to solve the problem and promote peace.
Britain Blockades Germany Britain blockades Germany for its contraband. Later Britain took all of the goods that were supposed to go into Germany. (Food, cotton, medicine, gasoline) German response = blockade of Britain
German Submarine Warfare U-Boats (German Untersea Boats- Britain and Germany competed to build the largest and strongest navy. Germany blockaded Britain by navy. GB used Propaganda to sway US opinion. Lusitania- 128 Americans killed Germany agreed to stop blowing up passenger ships. March 24, 1916 Sussex was sunk by Germans
Killed 2 Americans Sussex Pledge- Germans would warn ships before they sank them. Wilson authorized banks to make a huge loan to the Allies.
• May 7, 1915, the Germans sunk the Lusitania which was British passenger liner. • Germans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British. • Killed 1, 198 civilians including 128 Americans. • U. S. and other countries outraged towards Germany because of “unrestricted submarine warfare”. • US believed the Germans had violated
America Enters the War Jan. 31, 1917 Germany informs U. S. that the Sussex pledge would be ended. Feb. 3 U. S. cuts off diplomatic ties with Germany. Zimmerman Note- Germany promises lost land to Mexico if they declare war on U. S.