- Slides: 36
WWI Chapter 27
Setting the Stage: WWI n Causes WWI n Militarism n Alliances § Imperialism § Nationalism
The Spark = Assassination Archduke Franz Ferdinand June 28, 1914 http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=E 6 e 8 BW 0 l-E
Gavril Princep and the Blackhand
Franz Ferdinand’s Death Set into Motion a Deadly Web of Alliances
WWI Sides: The Belligerents n n n Allied Powers France GB Russia Italy United States and Japan (eventually) n n Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria
WWI: n A TOTAL WAR Total War = All resources used for war n Propaganda n Civilian responsibility n New Industrial weapons/inventions in land, air, sea
Weapons by Sea: Dreadnoughts n n n Revolutionary Design All-Big Gun design Brand new race to build the biggest and best Navy
Weapons by Sea: U-Boat n n n Unterseeboot Submarine Utilized by Germany to cut off support for Great Britain
Weapons by Air: Airplanes and Zeppelins Red Baron
Weapons by Land: Machine Gun
Weapons by Land: Railroad Guns
Trench Foot • Originally it was thought Trench Foot was caused by poor morale • Actual Cause: prolonged exposure to damp cold conditions
Weapons by Land: Gas
Burns from Mustard Gas
Animal Messengers and Gas Masks
Weapons by Land: Tanks
Total War made WWI a… n War n of Attrition: A slow wearing-down war in which each side tried to outlast the other
Theaters of War
Major Battles WWI n 1914 n Battle of Marne: n n W-front France stops German adv. into Paris Trench warfare begins Battle of Tannenberg n n n E-front Huge German Win! Prob. Germany in 2 -front war
Verdun – February, 1916 e German offensive. e Each side had 500, 000 casualties.
The Somme – July, 1916 e 60, 000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1, 000 killed in 5 months.
Major Battles WWI continued… n 1915 n Battle of Gallipoli n n n Turkish-front Allie’s defeated by Ottoman E! Russia remains landlocked
United States Entry into WWI n n n U. S. “neutral” until April 6 th, 1917 / May 28 th 1918 our first victory at Cantigny (North of Paris) Events that pushed U. S. into WWI: 1. Unrestricted Germ. submarine warfare Sinking of Lusitania Zimmerman Note / O throw of Russian Czar. n
WWI Causalities – 16 mill. Dead
Paris Peace Conference n Meeting of the Big 4: n n n GB: David Lloyd George France: George Clemenceau United States: Woodrow Wilson Italy: Vittorio Orlando Who were these men and what kind of “peace” did each of them want?
Areas of Concern n n Blame? Reparations? Colonies of Central Powers? Rhineland? Alsace-Lorraine? Saar? Poland? Danzig? Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Estonia? Czechoslovakia?
OTHER PROBLEMS W/ PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE… No Russia or Central powers invited!
Other Problems w/ the Paris Peace Conference 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Russia and Central Powers not invited Political Problems Territorial Conflicts Reparations How to maintain peace n n Force Wilson’s 14 Points n Freedom of seas, no secret treaties, no economic barriers, reduce arms, fair land divisions, establish League of Nations
Treaty of Versailles n Officially ended WWI 1919 n Treated Germany Harsh n Formed Independent Republics n Formed League of Nations
Europe Before WWI
Europe After WWI