Writing Body Paragraphs Body Paragraphs include the following

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Writing Body Paragraphs • Body Paragraphs include the following three pieces. 1. Topic Sentence/Claim

Writing Body Paragraphs • Body Paragraphs include the following three pieces. 1. Topic Sentence/Claim 2. Evidence 3. Reasoning/Elaboration So far, we’ve only collected the evidence for our body paragraphs. We need to add topic sentences and reasoning/elaboration.

1. Topic Sentences • Introduce the topic of the paragraph before getting into evidence.

1. Topic Sentences • Introduce the topic of the paragraph before getting into evidence. • Include the name of your career and the topic of the paragraph. Career Paragraph Training and Education Tower Climber Sample Topic Sentence “Becoming a tower climber requires a combination of traditional education and on-the-job apprentice work” Salary and Benefits “Tower climbers don’t make a huge amount of money, but there are other benefits of the job that make it worthwhile. ” Job Outlook “Although many telecommunications jobs are disappearing, tower climbers have a more positive job outlook. ”

2. Evidence • You already have the evidence! It’s on your research organizer, so

2. Evidence • You already have the evidence! It’s on your research organizer, so just add it to your paragraph.

3. Reasoning/Elaboration • We use reasoning an elaboration to talk about the evidence using

3. Reasoning/Elaboration • We use reasoning an elaboration to talk about the evidence using our own words. There are lots of different ways to elaborate on your evidence like: • • • Defining words Extrapolating numbers Creating an analogy Using the “so what? ” trick Creating an if…then… statement The next pages show examples of all these reasoning/elaboration methods

Reasoning that doesn’t work • Claim: School vacations are built in so kids don’t

Reasoning that doesn’t work • Claim: School vacations are built in so kids don’t have to miss school for out of town trips. • Evidence: “ 56% of students on Spring Break went out of town for at least two days, ” explained Dr. Watts. • Poor reasoning: Dr. Watts said most kids on break took some time to go out of town. • Reason: simply repeats the evidence

Reasoning that DOES work • Will explain how the evidence relates to the argument.

Reasoning that DOES work • Will explain how the evidence relates to the argument. • How do I do that? • Define words • Remember your Patriot’s Pen essay? • Many of you defined the word ‘Patriot’ as you explained what it means to you. • This form of elaboration clarified for your reader the point you were making.

Reasoning that DOES work • Will explain how the evidence relates to the argument.

Reasoning that DOES work • Will explain how the evidence relates to the argument. • How do I do that? • Extrapolate #’s – do the math for the reader • Claim – Edgar Martinez belongs in the MLB Hall of Fame. • Evidence – With a. 350 batting average, pitchers must be at their best to get him out. • Your reasoning/elaboration can show what that. 350 means: • Reasoning - A baseball player's batting average is calculated by dividing the number of hits by the number of at bats. In Major League Baseball, a. 330 career batting average is relatively rare; only 30 players in MLB history have batted. 330 for their careers, with a minimum of 3, 000 plate appearances. All but three finished their careers before 1946. Baseball historians consider. 330 to be an outstanding batting average.

Reasoning that DOES work • Will explain how the evidence relates to the argument.

Reasoning that DOES work • Will explain how the evidence relates to the argument. • How do I do that? • Analogy - An analogy, like metaphors and similes, shows how two different things are similar. • But, it’s a bit more complex, rather than a figure of speech, an analogy is more of a logical argument. It will demonstrate how two things are alike by pointing out shared characteristics, with the goal of showing that if two things are similar in some ways, they are similar in other ways as well.

Reasoning that DOES work Analogy - An analogy, like metaphors and similes, shows how

Reasoning that DOES work Analogy - An analogy, like metaphors and similes, shows how two different things are similar. • Claim – Learning to improve your writing can be a difficult skill to master. • Evidence - According to Harvard Professor Tom Jones, “The only way to become a better writer is to write!” • Reasoning - Learning to write an essay is like learning to drive. Inexperienced drivers are often too timid to pull into the stream of traffic, even when it is safe to do so. Young drivers lack the finesse, know-how and confidence they will gain as they gain experience. You don't jump on the expressway before you are comfortable driving at a high speed, do you? Writing works the same way. You have your permit as a beginning writer. Follow the rules and practice the techniques until you are comfortable.

Reasoning that DOES work • Will explain how the evidence relates to the argument.

Reasoning that DOES work • Will explain how the evidence relates to the argument. • How do I do that? If – Then – These statements take the reader step-by-step where you want them to go. Claim - Homework should be banned because it takes up too much time. Evidence - A 2002 study found a direct relationship between time spent on homework and levels of anxiety, depression, anger and other mood disorders. 1. Take a look at your evidence and ask yourself “So what? ” So What? Homework is supposed to help prepare students to be successful in life, but clearly there are times when it does more harm than good… Reasoning - Try using an “If…then” statement. If students are ending up with mood disorders like stress and depression because of homework, then maybe we need to reconsider if all this work is really in their best interest…

Transitions to lead into reasoning/elaboration • This evidence shows… • The author says this

Transitions to lead into reasoning/elaboration • This evidence shows… • The author says this because… • This proves that… • This confirms, demonstrates, describes, explains, illustrates, suggests…

Put it all together… Topic Sentence Evidence Reasoning/ Elaboration Although many telecommunications jobs are

Put it all together… Topic Sentence Evidence Reasoning/ Elaboration Although many telecommunications jobs are disappearing, tower climbers have a more positive job outlook. Overall, the number of telecommunications jobs is expected to decline. According to the Department of Labor Statistics, this is partially due to wireless technology replacing wired technologies. Tower climbers, however, are expected to see growth of about 29% through 2020. Since there already 9, 900 tower climbers in America, growth of 29% means about 3, 000 new jobs in the next ten years. I would still have several years of school ahead of me to earn the required education, so it’s good to know that jobs will be there in the future. I also found that Washington employs the 5 th most tower climbers of all the states, so the positive job outlook would be even more pronounced in our area.

Let’s do one together - Description Being a Tower Climber comes with a variety

Let’s do one together - Description Being a Tower Climber comes with a variety of responsibilities. Tower Climbers are responsible for repairing, installing, or maintaining equipment on telecommunication towers, so one responsibility is climbing 1000 vertical feet on a daily basis. After climbing all that way, Tower Climbers may need to install or update software or bolt new hardware into place, and if they aren’t making any changes, they still need to perform routine maintenance to make sure everything is working properly. ______________________________________________ • Define Words • Extrapolate Numbers • Analogy • Ask “So What? ” • Create an “If…Then…” statement

Let’s do one together - Description Being a Tower Climber comes with a variety

Let’s do one together - Description Being a Tower Climber comes with a variety of responsibilities. Tower Climbers are responsible for repairing, installing, or maintaining equipment on telecommunication towers, so one responsibility is climbing 1000 vertical feet on a daily basis. After climbing all that way, Tower Climbers may need to install or update software or bolt new hardware into place, and if they aren’t making any changes, they still need to perform routine maintenance to make sure everything is working properly. In general, the telecommunications industry is responsible for providing television, internet, and phone access to Americans across the country. If we didn’t have Tower Climbers, then consumers could possibly lose access to TV or internet if a tower wasn’t functioning properly. Furthermore, as technologies grow and progress, we need Tower Climbers to install new software to provide consumers with those new technologies. When a cell phone company replaces a 3 G network with 4 G, someone has to climb tower to make those changes, and that’s why the responsibilities of Tower Climbers are so vital. • Define Words • Extrapolate Numbers • Analogy • Ask “So What? ” • Create an “If…Then…” statement