- Slides: 52
Writing a Research Paper Step by Step
Purpose WHAT IS A RESEARCH REPORT? Research means to “search again. ” The purpose of research is to find existing facts and/or opinions from a variety of sources and to present them to support an opinion, which you have developed.
Research Paper Requirements • Paper Due November 10 th, 2017 • I. Sources: • Encyclopedia • Book • Journal Articles • Newspapers • videos • • Minimum Requirements : 3 different resources II. Paper Length: 3+ pages III. Title Page – no colorful covers or pictures (in addition to paper) IV. Introductory paragraph V. Minimum of 3 Body Paragraphs VI. Conclusion VII. Works Cited (in addition to paper)
Prewrite: “What do I want to know about Greece? ” • Brainstorming List 1. 7. 2. 8. 3. 9. 4. 10. 5. 6. What was the most interesting topic for the group and Why? Which topic was I most excited to talk about and Why?
Clustering (connecting ideas) • Write your topic in the circle in the middle of the paper. Then think of ideas that relate to the topic and write them in the connecting circles.
Student Research Planning Guide What is the question or problem? What do you know? What do you need to know? Where will you look? What keywords will you use? How will you record what you find? What did you learn from reading, listening, viewing? Did you answer the question? Can you organize the information to support your answer? Print
Selecting Appropriate Sources It should take you no more than two or three minutes to survey each of your sources. Here is how to do it: Books: Review the table of contents and the index. Flip through the pages skimming to see if the text is too hard or too easy for you, if the illustrations are good, if there are maps and other reading aids. You will need to check the publication date to see if the material is outdated or recent. Encyclopedias: Skim read the text to see if the text is too hard or too easy for you. Look for visual organizers such as bold face print, headings, etc. for guides to reading. Note the date of publication. If your report calls for current information, you usually cannot use an encyclopedia. For each source you are trying to answer this question. Video: Read summary. Note the date it was made. Is this video meant for a student audience. We do not use Wikipedia as a source. We do not copy and pasted from sources into our research paper (exceptions- direct quotes). Is it likely that this source will give information that will help me to answer my research questions?
Working Bibliography Create a bibliography card for every resource you use. What goes on your bibliography card
Read and Take Notes on Note Cards Keep you note cards and the bibliography cards in order. For source #1 Bibliography card put a #1 on all note cards from that source For source #2 Bibliography card put a #2 on all note cards from that source Each note card must have only one piece of evidence.
Read and Take Notes on Note Cards Continued After you have located your sources, the next step is to read, evaluate the material and take notes. There are generally speaking, two methods of note taking: summarizing and paraphrasing. Summarize if you want to record only the general idea of large amounts of material. If you require detailed notes on specific sentences and paragraph, but not the exact wording, you may paraphrase-that is, to restate the material in your own words. In taking notes, try to be both concise and thorough. Strive for accuracy. Careful note taking will help you avoid the problem of plagiarism.
Creating Notecards and Bibliography Cards
Assignment • Collect 3 -4 resources on your topic of choice DUE: Friday, Oct 20 th. • Make sure your resources range in type: books, newspapers, journal, video or encyclopedia entries (no Wikipedia) • Complete the handout: Student Research Planning Guide. Due with resources on Friday.
Narrow Your Topic Use your 3 -4 resources on your topic • Look through table of content, indexes, chapters, headings, data bases, and periodicals Ask your self the following questions: How long will the report be? Can the topic be covered within this length? Can the topic be divided into subtopics? Can one of the subtopics stand alone?
Narrowing your Topic Continued Your goal in a research project is to become an expert in a particular topic. If your topic is too broad, finding and interpreting information about the topic like preparing to write an entire book! Choosing a narrower topic limits your provides a clear focus for your process. If you know a little about the specific topic, try generating research questions.
Narrowing your Topic Example
Audience and Purpose Ask yourself the following questions. 1. Is your reader familiar with the topic? a. Provide a fresh perspective. b. Focus on features that are new. 2. Is your reader new to the topic? a. Provide basic information. b. Define all technical terms. 3. What do you want your reader to know about the topic? 4. How do you want your reader to feel about the topic? 5. What is the main idea you want to communicate?
Thesis Statement 1. Formula: A specific subject + a specific feeling or feature or position = an effective thesis statement. 2. Similar to a topic sentence 3. A statement of purpose, intent, or main idea. 4. May appear anywhere in the introduction. (often the first sentence)
Thesis Statement Example A thesis statement is an assertion, not a statement of fact or an observation. • Fact or observation: People use many lawn chemicals. • Thesis: People are poisoning the environment with chemicals merely to keep their lawn clean.
Thesis Statement Example A thesis statement takes a stand rather than announcing a subject. • Announcement: The thesis of this paper is the difficulty of solving our environmental problems. • Thesis: Solving our environmental problems is more difficult than many environmentalists believe.
Thesis Statement Example A thesis statement is the main idea, not the title. It must be a complete sentence that explains in some detail what you expect to write about. • Title: Social Security and Old Age. • Thesis: Continuing changes in the Social Security make it almost impossible to plan intelligently for one’s retirement.
Thesis Statement Example A thesis statement is narrow, rather than broad. If thesis statement is sufficiently narrow, it can be fully supported. • Broad: The American steel industry has many problems. • Narrow: The primary problem in the American steel industry is the lack of funds to renovate outdated plants and equipment.
Thesis Statement Example A thesis statement is specific rather than vague or general. • Vague: Hemingway’s war stories are very good. • Specific: Hemingway’s stories helped create a new prose style by employing extensive dialogue, shorter sentences, and strong Anglo-Saxon words.
Thesis Statement Example A thesis statement has one main point rather than several main points. More than one point may be too difficult for the reader to understand the writer to support. • More than one main point: Stephen Hawking’s physical disability has not prevented him from becoming a worldrenowned physicist, and his book is the subject of a movie. • One main point: Stephen Hawking’s physical disability has not prevented him from becoming a world renowned physicist.
Thesis Statement A thesis statement may be revised while you are writing your essay. • Writers often discover what their real purpose and point is in the process of putting their thoughts into words and then reading what they’ve written. • Revision is an ongoing process.
Writing Your Thesis Statement Today you will work to write your thesis statement for your research project.
Summarizing a Video
Organizing Your Paragraphs Paragraph 1: Introductory Paragraph: Main Thesis and introduction to support details and discredit/acknowledge counter claim Paragraph 2: Supporting Paragraph 3: Supporting Paragraph 4: Supporting Paragraph 5: Concluding Paragraph- restate your thesis **** you may have more than 3 supporting paragraphs****
Writing a Counter Claim http: //prezi. com/t 1 z_yjnkx 99 w/counter-claim/ Now that you have watched the prezi: write a counter claim to your thesis
Or go online and create an Essay Map on Read Write Think http: //www. readwritethink. org /files/resources/interactives/es saymap/
Example: Outline Thesis: Farming is an essential part of the Hawaiian economy I. Sugar A. Effect on economy 1. Biggest money making industry 2. Largest employer in the islands B. Description 1. Sugar cane a Grass b Thick tough stalks c Set on fire to burn leaves 2. Milking process for refined sugar a. Squeeze juice from cane b. Clarify liquid c. Place into waters II Pineapple Go online to create an outline: On Read Write Think http: //www. readwriteth ink. org/classroomresources/studentinteractives/readwriteth ink-notetaker 30055. html
Writing a Rough Draft Convert your notes into an outline and your outline into paragraphs.
Rough Draft: Introductory Paragraph Write an introductory paragraph. 1. Use an introductory/attention getting sentence. 2. Include your main (thesis) statement. Two to three sentences which state(s) what you intend to prove. 3. Conclude/Summarizing sentence. .
Rough Draft: Body Paragraphs Write the body of the paper. 1. Support your main (thesis) ideas in each paragraph. 2. The main idea for each paragraph is either a main topic or subtopic from the outline. 3. Use facts and examples that support the key point. 4. Use good transitional words that provide a flow. 5. End with a concluding sentence.
Rough Draft: Concluding Paragraph Write the conclusion. 1. Summarize your main (thesis) idea. Review the major points presented in the paper. Do not give new information. 2. Conclude the paragraph with a clincher sentence.
In Text Citations 1. Direct quotations. Sample – Crazy Horse said: “At times we did not get enough to eat, and we were not allowed to leave the reservation” (Hakim 85). 2. Exact words taken from a source. Sample – Most of the settlers in the West were farmers and ranchers while the Indians were hunters. “Hunters need uncultivated land so herds of buffalo and deer can roam. Farmers need land cleared of wild animals so their crops won’t be trampled, eaten, and destroyed” (Hakim 80).
In Text Citations Continued 3. Specific facts not commonly found. Sample – P. T. Barnum built a circus ring that sat 20, 000 people who watched 400 performers (Hakim 102). B. Parenthetical References 1. The information to be cited is followed by parentheses ( ). Inside the parentheses is the author’s last name or the first word of the entry and the number of the page on which the information was found. (See exceptions pp. 24, 25, 26) 2. There is no comma between the author’s name and the page number. 3. The period at the end of the sentence is positioned after the parentheses. C. Make sure all the sources you cite in your paper are also listed on the Works Cited page.
Revise 1. Does your report have a focused topic or thesis statement in the introduction? 2. Does your introduction attract the reader’s attention? 3. Does each paragraph relate back to the main (thesis) statement? 4. Does your report include sufficient facts and details that support your main (thesis) statement?
Proofread and Edit Proofread/Edit 1. Are all the sentences complete and correctly punctuated? 2. Did you use correct subject-verb agreement? 3. Did you spell each word correctly?
Works Cited Page 1. ) Title: Centered, title page, Works Cited 2. ) Put all citations in alphabetical order by last name of author 3. ) Entry, Author, Title, Date Published (conclude with period)
Read you paper out loud Correct all errors you hear
Plagiarizing Writing a quality research paper takes a lot of time and work; therefore, you will want to make every effort to see that the work is completely your own and that you get full credit for it. Students sometimes think that they can take short cuts by plagiarizing, that is, copying word for word from another author’s text; or by paraphrasing, i. e. , copying any of another author’s words and changing only a few or rearranging the order of the sentences in another author’s passage. This practice is illegal, unethical, and completely unacceptable for the student has given the impression that the work or ideas of an author are his/her own. Just to make sure that you do not plagiarize or paraphrase, even by accident: 1. Follow the directions for taking notes carefully. 2. Avoid using the author’s words, sentences, or ideas.
Read Write Think Edit http: //www. readwritethink. org/files/resources/pri ntouts/Editing%20 Checklist. pdf
Revise #2 Take you edits and revise your paper a second time
Final Draft: Title Page The title page of your paper should be centered on the page. Do not underline or use quotation marks unless your title includes the title of a published work. Example: John F. Kennedy: An American Hero Two-thirds of the page down from the top in the lower right-hand corner, single space: • Your Name • Teacher’s Name • Date
Final Draft: Text 1. Pages should be numbered. 2. Leave a one-inch margin on the left and right side of your paper. 3. Indent each paragraph. 4. Write on lined paper writing on every line in complete sentences. Leave an inch margin at the bottom of your paper. 5. Write on only one side of the page. Staple the final copy together in the upper left-hand corner. Use only one staple
Final Draft: Works Cited 1. Center the title on the top of the page. It will look like this: Works Cited Do not underline and do not use quotation marks. 2. Skip two lines before the first entry. 3. Alphabetize each book or encyclopedia by author’s last name or the first word of a title or work without an author. 4. Begin the first line of each reference at the left-hand margin. Doublespace each entry.
Characteristic 4 points Includes title page Format 3 points 2 points Three of the requirements met 2 of the requirements met 1 point 0 points 1 of the requirements met Not Present Title of report is in Times New Roman, 14, bold-faced, and underlined Sub-headings included in Times New Roman, 12, bold-faced Paper is double spaced Conventions Contains few, if any, errors in grammar, Contains some errors in punctuation, capitalization, and/or grammar, punctuation, spelling capitalization, and/or spelling Contains several errors in grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and/or spelling which may interfere with understanding Contains numerous errors in grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and/or spelling that interfere with readers understanding Not Present Organization Contains a constant point of view, organization, and focus with good transitions Inconsistent point of view, focus, or organization and ineffective transitions Lacks a point of view, focus, and organization along with ineffective transitions Not Present Voice Vocabulary is well chosen and exceeds grade level. Voice and tone enhance topic. Not Present Information is well researched and current and work cited accurately. All information typed and reported according to given format and includes one book and one website source. Vocabulary is inappropriate to topic and below grade level. Voice and tone is not appropriate. Some inconsistency in information and/or some facts reported inaccurately. Some errors in reporting sources and/or only includes one source. Vocabulary is not appropriate and well below grade level. Voice and tone distract from topic. Accuracy of Information Bibliography Has consistent point of view, focus, and organization, effectively uses transitions most of the time Vocabulary is appropriate to topic and meets grade level expectations. Voice and tone support topic. Slight inconsistency in information or a couple of facts reported inaccurately. A sight error in reporting sources but includes one book and one website source. Time and Managed time well and worked above expectations. Managed time well and worked to expectations. Needed some reminders to time line and work may have Turned in work late with little effort shown. Numerous inconsistencies in information Not Present and/or numerous facts not reported accurately. Numerous errors in reporting sources Not Present and/or only includes one source. Not Present