- Slides: 56
World War II Interactive
World War II Causes �World War I Peace Treaty- Treaty of Versailles �German Reparations- Harsh, but not strictly enforced �Redrawn Boundries- France takes back Rhineland �Weak Countries after war �Economic & Political Factors�Great Depression- 1929 - Starts in US, hurts everyone �Hitler is the lesser of two evils. (He is not communist)
WWII Causes Continued �Diplomatic Factors �Appeasement �Failure of Collective Security- League of Nations weak. �America wants to stay out of depression �Hitler’s Leadership �Nationalism- Unifies nation through Anti-Semitism �Imperialism- Begins to retake colonies challenging the Treaty of Versailles. �Militarism- Begins to rebuild German military
Blitzkrieg! Invasion of Poland �On September 1, 1939, German forces struck Poland with great speed and mobility. Germans called this tactic blitzkrieg (lightning war). �Britain and Poland had a mutual assistance treaty. Joined by France, Britain demanded an end to the attack. When Hitler refused, France and Britain declared war on Germany.
WWII – Start of War �“This morning the British Ambassador in Berlin handed the German Government a final note stating that unless we heard from them by eleven o'clock that they were prepared at once to withdraw their troops from Poland, a state of war would exist between us. I have to tell you that no such understanding has been received and that consequently this country is at war with Germany. ” Neville Chamberlain - 3 rd September 1939
Choose Sides � Major Allied Powers � Great Britain � France � Canada � India � New Zealand � Australia � China � South Africa � Soviet Union* � United States* � Poland � Greece � Yugoslavia * Joined later � Major Axis Powers � Germany � Italy � Japan � Bulgaria* � Hungary* � Romania* * Only against Russia
May 26, 1940: Allied forces were trapped by advancing German armies. The desperate rescue operation called for British ships of all sizes to rescue the 300, 000 Allied soldiers.
�*Germans set up a Puppet government in Vichy, France under French Marshal Henri Petain. �*Charles de Gaulle organized Free French This group opposed occupation, many joined the French resistance.
Battle of Britain “our finest hour” �By the fall of 1940 France had fallen and Britain stood alone against the dictators. The technically neutral United States, Britain's colonies, and some of its former colonies sent aid. In August 1940, the German air force (Luftwaffe) started the Battle of Britain—the unrelenting bombing of British cities, industrial areas, seaports, and military installations. The Royal Air Force, however, destroyed large numbers of German Planes. By June 1941, the air raids eased, and Britain seemed safe from a land invasion. �“never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few” – Winston Churchill
Battle of Britain
August 1940: German Luftwaffe began bombing (incendiary) RADAR
Royal Air Force (RAF)
Sept. 7 to Nov. 3 The Blitz: massive air attack that resulted in the destruction of London
RAF maintained control of the air. Downed more than 1, 700 German aircraft.
Eastern Europe �Italian forces conquered Albania in 1939. Hungary and Romania joined the Berlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis in late 1940. Bulgaria followed in 1941. By May 1941, Fascist forces had crushed Yugoslavia and Greece and thus gained control of the Balkans. �Invading the Soviet Union �Hitler broke the Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact with Stalin and invaded the Soviet Union to gain its oil-rich and grain-producing areas. Britain and the United States sent arms and food to the Soviets. After the Soviets counterattacked in December 1941, a harsh winter stopped the Germans from advancing on Moscow
Hitler VS Stalin
German invasion of Soviet Union fell short when they encountered Soviet resistance near Moscow and the harsh Russian winter.
The Battle of Leningrad began on July 10, 1941 and lasted over three years.
Here come the Americans! � Aid to Britain �In March 1941, in spite of neutrality FDR persuaded Congress to pass the Lend-Lease Act (permitted the President of the United States to "sell, transfer title to, exchange, lease, lend, or otherwise dispose of, to any such government [whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States] any defense article") �Felt Germany endangered American security. �Gave destroyers in exchange for military bases.
Attack on Pearl Harbor �December 7 th, 1941 �US Naval base in Hawaii
Admiral Yamamoto of the Imperial Japanese Navy "In the first six to twelve months of a war with the United States and Great Britain I will run wild and win victory upon victory. But then, if the war continues after that, I have no expectation of success. "
Japan felt the U. S. stood in the way of their eastward expansion. “A date which will live in Infamy” Sank or disabled 19 American ships, destroyed 188 Airplanes, & Killed over 2, 400 people & wounded 1, 100 Declaration of war came Dec. 8, 1941
Allied March to Victory �Allies Keys to Victory �Battle of El Alamein – Allied victory in Egypt that keeps the Italians from gaining the Suez canal �Stalingrad – In February 1943, the Germans suffered a major defeat at Stalingrad that put the Soviets on the offensive �Fall of Italy – In July 1943 the Allies invaded Sicily. Mussolini was ousted, imprisoned and later executed by anti-fascists. The new Italian government signed an armistice in September and Rome fell to the allies in June 1944.
Meanwhile Back in Europe
D-Day “Operation Overload” � When: June 6 th 1944 Was it a surprise attack? � Where: Normandy Beaches Omaha, Gold, Juno, Sword, and Utah Where is Normandy? � Who: Allied forces (Canadian, French, British, and American Why is it a turning point? � Largest land sea attack in history: Saving Private Ryan Intro � Forces Hitler to fight on two-fronts � 2, 700 casualties mostly Omaha Beach � Allies march on to the liberation of Paris (Aug 25 th 1944)
Battle of the Bulge � Battle of the Bulge (December 1944 – January 1945 � last major battle of the European theater � Russia from East; Allies From West � German counterattack in December 1944 � Germans gain early success but forced to retreat; leads to unconditional surrender Germany’s Unconditional Surrender � Hitler commits suicide, Mussolini killed. � On May 8, 1945, Germany officially surrenders, marking VE Day � President Roosevelt dies in April; Harry Truman becomes president
Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Joseph Stalin Yalta Conference: support in the Pacific. February 4 -11, 1945 - US and Britain is trying to gain Soviet
The Potsdam Conference, July - August 1945 It ended with an ultimatum: Japan must immediately agree to unconditionally surrender, or face "prompt and utter destruction".
Japanese Perspective �Create Co-Greater East Asia Prosperity Sphere �Able to defeat U. S. for six months �“Death before Dishonor” – samurai connections �Will defend the Archipelago at all costs �Kamikaze Pilots increase as the war goes on �Japan fears treatment from U. S. soldiers (Nanking revenge, Bataan Death March)
June 1942: the Americans defeated the Japanese navy & ended Japanese superiority in the Pacific.
Victory in the Pacific �Island Hopping – The Allied strategy in the pacific was called “Island Hopping. ” They attacked key Japanese-held islands and used the ones they won as bases to invade the other islands.
Gen. Douglas Mac. Arthur Commanded armed forces in the Philippines, while Admiral Chester W. Nimitz commanded naval forces. First attempt to defeat Japanese failed, he vowed “I will return”. Trained forces in Australia and returned to liberate the Philippines.
There were no front lines. The Marines were above ground and the Japanese were below them underground. The US sent more Marines to Iwo Jima than to any other battle, 110, 000 Marines in 880 Ships.
Okinawa had been the bloodiest land battle of the Pacific war. The Japanese had lost approx. 110, 000 killed & 10, 755 POW during the 83 - day struggle. Kamikaze attacks and conventional air strikes had killed 4, 320 and wounded 7, 312 Naval personnel.
Should U. S. President Truman use the atomic bomb against Japan? YES �It would save lives �It would bring a quick end to the war �It would show the power of the U. S. to any further enemies. NO �It would cause massive destruction �Once used, it would more likely be used again. �It would release deadly radioactivity.
President Truman desired to end the war with Japan swiftly and avoid the enormous loss of life that would have resulted from an American invasion of Japan.
Enola Gay (B-29)
Little Boy (Hiroshima) & Fat Man (Nagasaki)
an ominous silver B-29 named Enola Gay dropped the world's first atom bomb on the unsuspecting city of Hiroshima and killed some 140, 000 Human Beings. August 6, 1945:
Hiroshima After A-Bomb
August 9, 1945 An estimated 70, 000 people killed outright with another 70, 000 doomed to die in the decades that followed. The Nagasaki bomb was larger than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima and was a plutonium bomb, whereas the Hiroshima bomb was a uranium bomb.
September 2 is recognized as V-J Day (victory in Japan)
Effects of WWII �Most destructive war in history � Millions left homeless � Food, clothing and shelter in short supply �Estimated 55 -85 million killed (3% of world population) � Battle Deaths: 15, 000 � Battle Wounded: 25, 000 � Civilian Deaths: 45, 000
�War Crimes Trials � Nuremburg Trials of Germans for ‘Crimes against humanity’ � 142 German and Austrian officials/soldiers found guilty � Trials also held in Italy and Japan �Creation of United Nations in April 1945 � International Organization designed to ensure peace � 5 permanent members: Britain, France, USA, USSR and China
�Ideological differences between Communism and Capitalism precipitate the Cold War � USA and Soviet Union emerge as world’s 2 superpowers