World War I
w https: //www. brainpop. com/socialstudies/us history/worldwari/
Objectives w Content: Differentiate between the long term and immediate causes of World War I. w Learning: List the 4 MAIN causes of World War I.
Underlying Causes of WWI w There were 4 MAIN causes of WWI. 1. Militarism- When a country aggressively builds up its military strength
1. Alliances- 2. A alliance between two countries that they will help each other in case of war. Many of these alliances became entangled
1. Imperialism- When strong countries take over smaller, weaker countries in an effort to become more powerful
w 1. Nationalism w A strong feeling of pride and dedication to one’s country
These four things were happening over a period of time and caused tensions between countries in Europe. These are w known as underlying causes w http: //safeshare. tv/v/ss 5696 b 3 e 9 f 375 d
What was the immediate cause of the war? w The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand w He was killed by Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo w Why?
w The Archduke was heir to the throne in Austria-Hungary w Serbia was a controlled area of Austria. Hungary w Gavrilo Princip was a Serbian Nationalist w Why would he want to kill the Archduke?
The Alliances Allied Powers w France w United States w Russia w Belgium w British Empire w Serbia Central Powers w Bulgaria w Austro-Hungarian Empire w German Empire w Ottoman Empire
Trick to Remember Alliances in WWI FURBBS BAG of “O”’s w. FURBBS = Allies w. BAG of “O”s = Central Powers
What is going on here?
Warm Up w Read through Document A: Woodrow Wilson’s Speech #1. w Answer Question #1 on Guiding Questions.
U. S. Expansionism w Spanish American War ended the U. S. policy of Isolationism (1898) • Result of Spanish American War = the U. S. emerges as a world power
U. S. Expansionism w WWI ended the U. S. policy of avoiding European conflicts (1914 -1918) • WWI = the U. S. emerges as a global superpower
American Neutrality Is Over w Up to 1917, the US opposed war. Woodrow Wilson was re-elected as President with the slogan: “He kept us out of war!” • But that was all about to change!
Reasons for America’s Involvement in WWI 4 REASONS 1. US inability to remain neutral- not pick a side 2. United States economic and political ties to Great Britain
Reasons for America’s Involvement in WWI 3. German submarine warfare: In 1915 they sank the Lusitania (1000 people died, 128 were Americans) 4. The Zimmerman Telegram
THEY PUBLISHED A WARNING IN THE NEWSPAPER
Zimmerman Telegram w The Zimmerman Telegram – was a secret message from Germany to Mexico that the British intercepted (January 1917). • The message said that if Mexico helped Germany invade and defeat the US, than Germany would help them get back all the land they lost in the Mexican American War (1848) • Americans were angry and wanted to go to war. • Activity time!
What are we going to do now? What are these cartoons saying about Woodrow Wilson’s reaction to the war? Why do you think the American public was pushing Wilson to go to war?
U. S. Entry into WWI w Read Document B: Woodrow Wilson’s Speech #2. w Answer remaining Guiding Questions.
w I have called the Congress into extraordinary session because there are serious, very serious, choices of policy to be made, and made immediately, which it was neither right nor constitutionally permissible that I should assume the responsibility of making. On the 3 d of February last I officially laid before you the extraordinary announcement of the Imperial German Government that on and after the 1 st day of February it was its purpose to put aside all restraints of law or of humanity and use its submarines to sink every Even hospital ships and ships carrying relief to the sorely bereaved and stricken people of Belgium, though the latter were provided with safe-conduct through the proscribed areas by the German Government itself and were distinguished by unmistakable marks of identity, have been sunk with the same reckless lack of compassion or of principle.
How is this different from his earlier speech? w Who has the power to formally declare war?
America Enters the War w April 6, 1917 - President Wilson and Congress declare war! w More than 2 million Americans entered the military to fight in WWI. http: //www. firstworldwar. com/audio/overthere. htm
Homefront w Civilians at home made sacrifices to help with the war effort – War Gardens – personal fruit and vegetable gardens so that more food could be sent to the troops
w http: //safeshare. tv/v/ss 569935 ac 3 c 751
Homefront – Bonds – loaning the government money to help pay for the war. – Rationing – using less of what you want so that more materials can be used for the war or sent to the troops. w Propaganda helped encourage support for war effort.
w Who is the soldier in the cartoon? w Who do the people on the bayonet represent? w How does this represent the Germans? w How is it an example of propaganda?
Homefront continued w Women work in jobs traditionally held by men – leads to changing a role – Pushes women to get the right to vote – Most countries grant right to vote before WWI is over. – When does the U. S. grant the right to vote?
Objectives w Content: Defend why Wilson’s 14 Points were a good solution to WWI. w Learning: Describe the changes in warfare during WWI.
GUM Questions!! w 1. Why did the war start? w 2. How did the US get involved? w 3. How did the US change the role of women? w 4. Who were the Allied powers? w 5. Who were the Central powers?
WWI Details w 1914 -1918 w Actual fighting began in August when Germany invaded Belgium (a neutral country)
w Four main fighting fronts: – Western (Britain, France, and Germany) – Eastern (Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia) – Balkan (Serbia, Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria) – Italian (Italy and Austria-Hungary)
New Weapons of WWI w Improved cannons and improved guns (machine guns) w New inventions and destructive weapons • German “U-boats” (submarines) • Tank • Poison Gas • Combat airplanes (end of war)
WWI Gas Masks
German U-boats "unterseeboot", or undersea boat in English
http: //safeshare. tv/v/uzaa_RVw. YSs
Trench Warfare w WWI introduces Trench Warfare because of new weapons
w http: //safeshare. tv/v/ss 5697 d 9846467 f w http: //safeshare. tv/v/ss 569933 d 9 aa 9 c 8 w
Trench warfare webquest w Website 1: w Website 2:
http: //safeshare. tv/v/ss 569 fee 8 b 61 a 24
The Allies Were Struggling w Russian troops were not able to get the supplies they needed. – Many were trying to fight with NO bullets. – In 1917, the Russian people overthrew their government with the Russian Revolution. It caused Russia to leave the war. – Now all of Germany’s attention was on the Western Front.
w http: //safeshare. tv/v/ss 569935 d 18 ea 17
The U. S. Enters the War Allied forces desperately needed the help, they were drained and starving. The Allies with U. S. help didn’t just stop the German advance, but pushed them back to Germany.
The End of WWI w November 11, 1918, Germany’s government is overthrown and the new leaders quickly agree to an armistice (an agreement to end the fighting) w http: //www. realmilitaryvideos. com/wwi/newsreel-end-of-wwiin-san-francisco/
After the Armistice w More than 9 Million soldiers lost their lives w President Woodrow Wilson was seen as a hero to all of Europe w Wilsons peace proposal was called “Fourteen Points” • Outlined new boundaries and nations in Europe • Called for free trade, freedom of the seas and an end to secret treaties
League of Nations w Wilson’s final and biggest point was to create the League of Nations, a peacekeeping organization. w Wilson’s peace terms were seen as to lenient on the losing nations.
Treaty of Versailles: A true historical dumpster fire Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles w The Treaty of Versailles brought an end to the war between Germany and the Allied Powers. The other countries in the Central Powers were dealt with in separate treaties. w The Treaty was signed in June 1919.
What did it mean for Germany? w The Treaty of Versailles: – Forced Germany to accept full blame for the war – Took away Germany’s colonies and armed forces – Forced Germany to pay $33 billion in war reparations
What did it mean for the world? The Treaty of Versailles: w Also divided up the empires of Austria. Hungary, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire. w Established the League of Nations
But not so fast…. w The United States never ratified (approved) the treaty or joined the League of Nations. w Many members of Congress did not want the US to join the League of Nations because they did not want more foreign commitments.
Did the Treaty of Versailles Work? w The Treaty failed to make Europe “safe for democracy” w Germany resented the treaty w It helped plant the seeds for WWII