- Slides: 57
World War I “The Great War”
WORLD WAR I • Background CAUSES: • M: • A: • N: • I: • A:
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Central Powers ALLIES / Triple Entente French British Serbia Russia Italian Greek Germans Austro-Hungarians Turks Bugarians Many men marched off happily to battle, convinced that the war would be short. They said, “The boys will be home for Xmas. ” They were wrong!
Fighting the War in the Trenches New Weapons
War in the trenches • Western and Eastern Fronts • Stalemate – a standstill, no side made significant advances • War of Attrition both sides try to wear each other down- huge casualties
• No man’s land- space between opposing trenches. • Over the top- men ordered to jump out of the trenches into no man’s land • Shell shock – mental stress many soldiers suffered from
New Weapons of War • Poison Gas - soldiers wore masks to protect themselves. Some gases caused blinding or severe blisters, others caused death by choking
WWI and the U. S.
Woodrow Wilson n n Dem. , NJ (Born in Va. ) 28 th Pres. 1913 -1921 Progressive Beliefs – “New Freedom” n Keating-Owen Child Labor Act n Clayton Antitrust Act n Federal Trade Commission n Amendments 16 -19 Supported Segregation n Showed “Birth of a Nation” which celebrates KKK at White House
U. S. Neutrality • Wilson = “impartial in thought as well as deed” – 8/4/1914 • Ethnic ties to both sides • Begin to side with Allies • Moral/ethics – reports of German atrocities • Is the U. S. truly neutral? • US supplies Triple Entente (Allies) with weapons, goods and $$$ • Over $3 billion in loans • British blockade and German subs • Disruption in trade is causing more tension with Germany • U. S. economy is thriving
Election of 1916 • Wilson…”He kept us out of war”
U. S. Entrance into WWI Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Zimmerman Telegram/Note Russian Revolution
1. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare • Lusitania - 1915 • British passenger ship • Sunk by Germans • 128 Americans die • US claims Germany is not respecting their neutrality • Germans are using unrestricted submarine warfare
Main Cause of Tension w/US: German Submarine Warfare • Unrestricted Submarine Warfare • Changes the “rules” of war • U. S. is a neutral nation, yet their ships are being targeted • Heightension w/U. S. in way that Br. interference does not: • 1915: Lusitania: “strict accountability” • 1916: Sussex: Germany’s “Sussex Pledge”:
2. Zimmerman Note/Telegram • Alfred Zimmerman – German Foreign Secretary sends message to Mexico • Urges Mexico to support Germany if US declares war • Mexico would receive Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico • Intercepted by England given to U. S.
3. Resumption of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare n n Jan. 31 st, 1917: Germany announced unrestricted submarine warfare US ended diplomatic relations Zimmerman telegraph angers public Germans continue to sink US ships
4. Russian Revolution • US did not want to ally with Russia because it was not a democracy. • Russia drops out of the war bc of the revolution. • US can now enter the war and make the world “safe for democracy” The Royal Family is killed by the Communists. The Russian Monarchy is destroyed forever.
America at War
U. S. Enters • Germans announce starting Feb. 1, 1917 Germany they will resume unrestricted submarine warfare • U. S. enters on April 6, 1917 • U. S. Forces • American Expeditionary Force • Led by Gen. John J. Pershing • Fights for 8 months
Selective Service Act • Passed in May 1917 • Authorizes a draft for military service • No riots • Draft is mostly supported • “A war to end all wars” • Critics – Pacifists, Socialists • 3 million are drafted
-Passed in May, 1917, this authorized a Draft of young men for military service. 24 million men registered for the draft, 3 mill were picked in a lottery
The Convoy System • Surround unarmed ships with destroyers, torpedo boats and other ships • All can’t get through, but most will
U. S. Government during the War Liberty Bonds Regulation of Industries Propaganda Dealing with Dissent
Liberty Bonds • Bonds = give government money, repay the price and interest • Raised more than $20 billion • Sold by Boy and Girl Scouts • Artists and actors gave speeches in support
Economic Preparation For War: Greater Gov’t. Control • Create agencies to direct war effort • War Industries Board: Bernard Baruch: • Allocate war materials for resources • Fix prices for government purchases • Increase production • Food Administration: Herbert Hoover: • Lever Food and Fuel Control • Reduce Consumption – “Meatless Mondays” • National War Labor Board: Wm. H. Taft: • Arbitration to avoid all strikes during war • Improvement in wages, hours (8) and conditions • Government supervised RR and utilities • War Revenue Act – raise taxes
Committee on Public Information n n 1917 -1919 Headed by George Creel Produced materials to influence public sentiment for the war = Propaganda (but they didn’t want it called propaganda) used newsprint, posters, radio, telegraph, cable and movies to broadcast its message
The Huns • Huns = Germans • US wanted to display the Germans as barbaric people • Propaganda to help support the war • Hamburger = “Liberty sandwich” • Nativism increases and leads to literacy tests for immigrants • Increased riots and lynching
Espionage and Sedition Acts 1917 • Espionage Act - Illegal to obstruct sale of Liberty Bonds or do anything disloyal, profane, or abusive to America • Sedition Act – speech/writings or actions that encourage rebellion, or to take action to weaken the war effort are illegal
Schenck v. US (1919) • Schenck was distributing pamphlets opposing the war and the draft • Schenck was arrested under the Espionage/Sedition Act • Found Guilty and appeals to the Supreme Court – believes 1 st Amendment was violated • Supreme Court Ruling • Upholds arrest and conviction • Schenck was a “clear and present danger” to national security • Gov’t power expands during war • Freedom of Speech can be limited
Cease Fire • November 11, 1918 – armistice • Armistice = cease fire • Fighting is over, but no treaty is signed
Paris Peace Conference Wilson’s 14 Points Treaty of Paris The League of Nations
Paris Peace Conference • • • Georges Clemenceau – France David Lloyd George – Britain Vittorio Orlando – Italy Wilson – US Who is missing?
Wilson’s 14 Points • Wilson’s goals or beliefs that he wants included in the final peace treaty Open diplomacy = no secret alliances Freedom of the seas Removal of trade barriers Reduce the size of militaries Creation of new countries – out of A-H and O. E. Self-determination – new countries will be democracies • “association of nations” to ensure political and territorial independence • • •
Settlement • Europeans are upset • Suffered more • Wanted to be repaid • Treaty of Versailles • Germany must • • • Accept responsibility Pay reparations Give up military Cede lands Give up colonies • Creates the League of Nations • International peacekeeping assembly of nations • This is the only part of Wilson’s 14 Points included in the Treaty
Problems • Wilson agrees to the treaty because Europeans accept the idea of the League of Nations. • Wilson did not bring any Republicans to Paris. • Republicans are angry and distrust Wilson • Led by Henry Cabot Lodge • Senate refuses to ratify the treaty • Fearful the League of Nations will • Cause the U. S. to be involved in future European conflicts • May allow Europe to become involved in the W. Hemisphere
League of Nations • 1/25/1919 • Oversee world affairs • 9 member Executive Council to make decisions • US Senate refuses to ratify treaty and never joins the League of Nations • What effect would this have the treaty and the League?
Effects of WWI German Punishments Rise of Hitler Red Scare in America
Postwar Loans and Debts • US had loaned out a great deal of money and wants it back • Europe had been devastated by the war • Dawes Plan • US loans Germany money so they can pay reparations • Allies take these payments and repay the debt they owe to the US
Rise of Hitler - Wilson knew that the treaty was too harsh - Germans felt a deep sense of resentment about their loss in WWI and will lead to the creation of NAZISM.
Red Scare 1919 • Communist victory in Russian Revolution of 1917 = creates Soviet Union • Communist International – tries to spread Communism throughout world • Americans blame socialist revolutionaries for labor problems
Hysteria Grows • Series of bombings in 1919 • Some bombs were sent to businessmen and politicians • Palmer Raids • Government arrests communists/socialists/anarchists • Many are detained, not told of crimes and held for extended periods of time, some are also abused • U. S. will deport some that are arrested • Civil liberties of some U. S. citizens are threatened • Immigration Restrictions • U. S. fears radical ideas (communism) are taking hold in U. S. • Limits immigration to keep people from communist countries out • Targets southern and eastern Europe • Emergency Quota Act of 1921 • National Origins Act of 1924
YEARS World War I U. S. Industrial Revolution German Militarism Economic Depression in U. S. Railroad Building Western Settlement U. S. Civil War Famine in Ireland Revolution in Germany NUMBER OF IMMIGRANTS (in thousands) INFLUENCES ON IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES (1820 -1940)