- Slides: 68
WORLD WAR I The Great War The War to End All Wars 1914 -1918
EUROPE IN 1914
Berlin Conference 1884 – Dividing Africa
IMPERIALISM CAUSES STRAIN AMONG EUROPEAN NATIONS
MILITARISM • Militarism is the mass build-up of military power. • To supply the need for imperialism and nationalism, militarism is a visual way to countries to show strength and power throughout the world. • During the Late 1800’s and Early 1900’s countries raced to have the most powerful militaries. Each country believed that they had the most superior military.
Conscription – Is Drafting People To Enlarge the Military
Austro-Hungarian Military Parade
Standing Alliances in 1914
Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand & His Wife Sophie
THE SPARK THAT IGNITED WORLD WAR • The assignation of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand successor to the Austro-Hungarian throne set World War One into motion in 1914. • Peace talks between Serbia and Austro. Hungarian Empire quickly failed and war broke out in the area known as the Balkans. • This is the “spark” not the cause
WAR BREAKS OUT AMONG ALL OF THE EUROPEAN NATIONS
PARTICIPANTS IN WORLD WAR I ALLIED POWERS United States (1917) British Empire (1914) CENTRAL POWERS Russia (1914) Italy (1915) France (1914) Greece (1917) Serbia (1914) Montenegro (1914) Romania (1916) Belgium (1914) Japan (1914) Portugal (1916) Bulgaria (1915) Ottoman Empire (1914) Austria. Hungary (1914) Germany (1914)
LEADERS OF WORLD WAR I ALLIED POWERS Czar Nikolas II of Russia Prime Minister David Lloyd George of England Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France CENTRAL POWERS Emperor Franz Josef I of Austria. Hungary Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany Sultan Mehmed V of the Ottoman Empire
EUROPE’S ROYAL FAMILIES ARE ALL RELATED
WAR IS INEVITABLE…WAR AS CELEBRATION • Everyone believed that it would be a short war. • (6 weeks) • News of war was greeted by most Europeans with great enthusiasm and with outpourings of patriotism and nationalism. • For decades, state-directed education had indoctrinated youth with nationalist attitudes, beliefs, and myths designed to promote social cohesion. • Thus, Europe marched off to war with great joy, anticipating a great adventure and national glory.
OBJECTIVES ALLIED POWERS The main objective of the Allied Powers was to stop Germany and the Central Powers’ attempts to expand their land in Europe and Asia. The CENTRAL POWERS The main objective of the Central Powers was to acquire as much land as possible in Europe and Asia. Germany believed France, England, and Russia prevented its expansion. Germany was determined to expand its borders.
THE SCHLIEFFEN PLAN • German plan to avoid defeat from Russia by taking out France first and then fight Russians. • Smash France in 30 days before Russia could respond with troops • Go through Belgium to surround French troops, defeat the French and then rush to Poland front on
Schlieffen Plan Fails • The French attacked back outside of Paris • Russia mobilizes far quicker than the Germans had thought possible. • Germans are forced to retreat back north east. • Battle lines are drawn from North Sea to Swiss border • This is known as The Western Front
TRENCH WARFARE • In trench warfare both armies could fight from fortified positions. It was a slow form of combat with heavy reliance on defense. The soldiers built complex trench and dugout systems and stocked them with weapons. Barbed wire protected the trenches. The space between opposing armies’ trenches was “no man’s land. ” Attacks almost always resulted in injury and death for the attacking soldiers.
IMAGES OF TRENCH WARFARE
STALEMATE • The Germans could not quickly secure victory over the French, however, because the Russian army mobilized faster than anticipated and the Germans had to divert troops to the Eastern Front. • The Germans had great success against the Russians; however, the resources needed to fight on the Eastern Front ensured that the stalemate on the Western front would continue. • The result was a deadlock that neither side could break.
EMPIRE AT WAR • The horrors of war reached across continents. • The sprawling Ottoman Empire battled British- and Russian-led forces in Egypt, Iraq, and the Caucasus. • In East Asia, Japan declared war on Germany and seized German possessions in China. • The British and French conscripted colonial subjects: • India: 1 million soldiers to Allies. (60, 000 died) • Africa: more than 1 million soldiers, 3 million transported goods. (150, 000 died)
THE UNITED STATES TRIES TO REMAIN NEUTRAL FOR A VARIETY OF REASONS.
US IMMIGRATION 1861 -1890
EARLY STATEMENT OF NEUTRALITY • The U. S. was determined to adopt a stance of rigid neutrality at the start of the war, and President Wilson announced the American stance to this effect shortly after war broke out, on 19 August 1914, reflecting U. S. popular opinion. • During his address, he warned U. S. citizens against taking sides in the war for fear of endangering the wider U. S. policy. • "The effect of the war upon the United States will depend upon what American citizens say and do. Every man who really loves America will act and speak in the true spirit of neutrality, which is the spirit of impartiality and fairness and friendliness to all concerned. " 30
United States exports to Europe 1910 -1915
AMERICA AS A MEDIATOR OF PEACE • Many American leaders felt that the proper role for the United States was a mediator of peace, though this avenue was exhausted shortly after the war began. • The excerpt references a discussion between Colonel Edward House, who was one of President Wilson’s closest advisors, and a British Foreign Secretary, Sir Edward Grey. • The tone is obviously one of optimism on the side of the Americans, and reluctance from the Allied camp. • "My suggestion is to ask the Allies unofficially, to let me know whether or not it would be agreeable to them to have us demand that hostilities cease. We would put it upon the high ground that the neutral world was suffering along with the belligerents and that we had rights as well as they" 32
INCREASING AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT WITH THE BELLIGERENTS • Despite official neutrality, a huge leap in loans and exports to the Allies led to a vested interest in an Allied victory. • Exports to Germany and its allies rapidly diminished in parallel to a significant rise in shipping to Britain and France. • Such disparities in trade between the belligerents led to increasing conflict both domestically and internationally as many leaders at home and abroad bristled at the U. S. seemingly favoring the Allies. 33
AMERICAN CONFLICT WITH GERMANY 34
AMERICAN RESPONSE TO UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE • On 4 February, the German Admiralty issued a formal declaration, which warned neutral shipping to stay away from the waters surrounding Britain and Ireland from 18 February 1915 onwards. • Six days later U. S. President Woodrow Wilson - at that time maintaining a neutral stance - issued a thinly veiled warning to the German government. • This excerpt is his 'Strict Accountability' message, which made it clear that the U. S. government would not tolerate any strategy by the German navy to sink neutral U. S. shipping at any time. • "If such a deplorable situation should arise, the Imperial German Government can readily appreciate that the Government of the United States would. . take any steps it might be necessary to take to safeguard American lives and property and to secure to American citizens the full enjoyment of their acknowledged rights on the high seas" 35
THE FOLLOWING RAN IN 50 US NEWSPAPERS • NOTICE! • Travelers intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that a state of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great Britain and her allies; that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the British Isles; that in accordance with formal notice given by the Imperial German Government, vessels flying the flag of Great Britain, or any of her allies are liable to destruction in those waters and that travelers sailing in the war zone on ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own risk
• The German sinking of the Lusitania on 7 May 1915, with its consequent loss of American life provoked great public and diplomatic anger within the U. S. • Already concerned at Germany's policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, many in the U. S. believed the sinking of the Lusitania to 37 be a calculated provocation of the U. S. on Germany's part.
PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN OF 1916 President Woodrow Wilson runs for re-election promising not to send American boys to fight in Europe’s war. His slogan is “He Kept Us Out of War”
RUSSIA LEAVES THE WAR • Russia was experiencing social and political unrest and growing war-weary • The Bolsheviks seized power through the Russian Revolution and ended Russia’s involvement in World War I by signing the treaty of Brest. Litorsk with Germany on March 3, 1918 • In the midst of World War I, Britain, France, Japan, and the US all sent troops and supplies to aid the “Whites” in their struggle against the “Reds” but the Whites were defeated in 1919 Bolshevik poster showing the three White generals as vicious dogs under the control of the US, France, and Britain.
ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM • The Zimmerman Telegram helped to solidly move public opinion away from any possible reconciliation with Germany. • "On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America. If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement. . " 40
DECLARATION OF WAR • A resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare in 1917 convinced American leaders that war with Germany was the only option. • Other factors, such as suspicions of German involvement with Mexico (via the Zimmermann Telegram), solidified popular opinion against Germany. 41
WILSON’S DECLARATION OF WAR • This excerpt is from Wilson's war message to Congress. • "I have called the Congress into extraordinary session because there are serious, very serious, choices of policy to be made, and made immediately, which it was neither right nor constitutionally permissible that I should assume the responsibility of making. . The present German submarine warfare against commerce is a warfare against mankind. "
WHY DID THE U. S. WAIT? • 1. We weren’t ready • 2. We did not want to be involved with an autocrat like Czar Nikolas II. Once Russia withdraws from the war, it becomes easier for the US to get involved
Selective Service Act- Required all young men from age 21 to 30 to register for the military draft. 4 million men and women joined the armed forces.
Training the soldiers- 25% of soldiers were illiterate, unable to read and write. The military taught millions of young Americans how to fight, read, and live a healthy life.
“FOOD WILL WIN THE WAR” VICTORY GARDENS WERE ENCOURAGED. THE FOOD ADMINISTRATIONED FOOD.
Switching to a Wartime Economy- The War Industries Board told factories what to produce and how to divide up limited resources.
Liberty Bonds- By buying bonds, Americans were lending money to the Federal Government to pay for the war. They raised $21 Billion.
Women went to work- As men went to war in Europe, women replaced their jobs in factories. They also worked as police officers, mail-women, and military nurses.
AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT: COMMAND AMERICANS IN EUROPE • British and French wanted the Americans attached to armies of other nations • Pershing resisted, arguing that national pride and a separate American contribution to victory overshadowed the logistical and preparation problems • Pershing did not want the young, well trained Americans in with the older, ragged European troops John Pershing, commander of the American Expeditionary Force
OVERWHELMING THE GERMANS • On July 18, 1918 the Allies began a series of counterattacks designed to take advantage of their new strength and seize the initiative from the Germans • Nine American divisions participated as part of three French armies (rather than as an independent force) • The Germans were forced out of their Marne River salient
OVERWHELMING THE GERMANS • The initiative had now shifted to the Allies • Ludendorff called August 8, the first day of the next Battle of Amiens, a “black day for the German army” because it marked a turning point in the conduct of Allied operations and inaugurated the relatively open form of warfare that would characterize the last months of the war • The Allies were now getting stronger while Germany could only get weaker • The Kaiser called a conference of his military leaders on August 14 and announced, “We have reached the limits of our endurance”
OVERWHELMING THE GERMANS • The rapidly deteriorating German situation surprised the Allies, but they determined to press their gains with two simultaneous attacks that would advance and turn inward like giant pincers
WWI NEW TECHNOLOGY • WWI cost the world millions of casualties due to the new technology and war weaponry that was developed prior to the war. • WWI was a testing ground for weapons of mass destruction. • Weapons such as poison gas, machine guns, airplanes, tanks, grenades, long range artillery, and submarines made WWI the first modern war.
Poison Gas Masks For Men and Horses
Germans used Submarines known as U-Boats
WORLD WAR I AIRPLANES 148 th American Aero Squadron Petite Sythe, France. (August 6, 1918) Baron Manfred von Richthofen, the Red Baron, was credited with 80 confirmed kills
ATTEMPTS TO BREAK THE STALEMATE: TANKS • The British began developing tanks in 1914 and used them in small numbers at the Somme on Sept 15, 1916 • Achieved little in this initial employment • The Battle of Cambrai on Nov 20, 1917 marked the first large scale use of tanks with 474 British Mark I tank of the type used during the Battle of the Somme
WORLD WAR I ZEPPELIN
WORLD WAR I FLAMETHROWER
ARMISTICE • In the end, the Allies had overwhelmed the Germans with men and equipment • “Americans and tanks” • Bulgaria surrendered Sept 30, 1918 • The Ottomans Oct 30 • Austria-Hungary Nov 4 • Germany Nov 11 • “Armistice Day” was replaced by “Veterans’ Day” by Act of Congress on
AMERICA AS A WORLD LEADER • The contributions of American Soldiers such as the Harlem Hellfighters, 369 th Infantry certainly showed the US to have the dominant military in the world. • With no damage at home and a huge surplus raised by the sale of liberty bonds the US also had the healthiest economy of industrialized nations. • This will set up a period of unparalleled success in The United States
PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE • The victorious powers met in Paris in 1919 to determine the postwar settlement • Representatives from the Central Powers were not invited to attend • The Russians were not invited to attend • The French, British, and Americans dominated the conference Georges Clemenceau (France), Lloyd George (Britain), and Woodrow Wilson (US) at Versailles
TREATY OF VERSAILLES (1919) • Woodrow Wilson proposed a generous “Fourteen Points” designed to focus on international cooperation and peace, but the French especially wanted harsh terms imposed on the Germans • Wilson’s plan included a plan for a global peacekeeping organization.
WAR GUILT CLAUSE Germany had to accept blame for starting WW 1 NO UNION WITH AUSTRIA REPARATIO NS forced to pay Germany massive fine for war damages - 1, 000, 000 Marks (34. 1 Billion Dollars). THE TERMS OF THE TREATY VERSAILLES 1919 GERMAN OVERSEAS TERRITORRIES Germany lost Chinese ports [Amoy and Tsingtao], Pacific Islands, and African colonies [Tanganika and German SW Africa]. The Treaty was designed to cripple Germany militarily, territorially and economically GERMANY’S MILITARY FORCES REDUCED - Army restricted to 100, 000 men. - No modern weapons such as tanks, military air OF force. - Navy could not have battle ships over 10, 000 tons and no U-Boats. RHINELAND TO BE DEMILITARISED GERMAN NATIONAL TERRITORY - Germany lost national territory which was given to Belgium and Denmark, most went to Poland.
The Great War was to see the collapse of four continental empires. These were to be replaced by new nation states.
WHO GETS WHAT • Allies get $34. 1 BILLION dollars in war reparations from Germany. This is not completely paid off until SEPTEMBER, 2010 • France gains territory bordering Germany known as Alsace-Loraine. Germany had won this land in the 1870 Franco-Prussian war • England gets Palestine, Transjordan and Mesopotamia from Ottoman Empire. • France gets Lebanon and Syria from Ottoman Empire • Italy, despite promises of territory walks away empty handed and bitter • United States does not seek anything other than lasting peace and resumption of trade. • President Wilson looking to preserve the German economy in order to resume trade also warned against humiliating Germany for fear that they would grow resentful
REACTIONS • “This is not Peace. It is an Armistice for twenty years. “ • French General Ferdinand Foch, who felt the reparations were too lenient • Today in the Hall of Mirrors of Versailles the disgraceful Treaty is being signed. Do not forget it! The German people will with unceasing labour press forward to reconquer the place among nations to which it is entitled. Then will come the vengeance for the shame of 1919. • From the ‘Deutsche Zeitung’ [‘The German Express’] newspaper.