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WORLD WAR I The Great War, The War to End All Wars http: //militaryhistoryus 2. wordpres s. com
THREE ISMS AND AN ENTANGLEMENT • Three –isms causing WWI • Imperialism—one country taking over another; can be direct (military takeover), economic, or cultural (think Mc. Donalds and Hollywood) • Militarism—nations investing heavily in their militaries; an international arms race occurred during the previous decade before WWI • Nationalism--The belief that your nation is superior to others; unyielding faith and allegiance to the concept of a Nation • Entangling alliances—when two countries have pacts to
BELLIGERENTS Allies Central Powers • Serbia • Austria-Hungary • Russia (under the Tsar and Provisional Govt. ) • Germany • France • England the Weight of her Empire • Italy • Ottoman Empire
PRE WAR AIMS • France—reconquer Allsaince-Lorraine from Germany • Russia—conquer Polands in Central Europe; pushback Ottomans on southern border and extend land claims in Central Asia • England—strengthen colonial hold in Southwest Asia; maintain status as world’s leading superpower • Serbia—gain more land freedom from Austria. Hungary • Italy—gain back territory lost to Austria-Hungary in previous wars • United States: to make sure the billions in loans to allies are able to be paid back! To make the world “safe for democracy; ” to ensure the rights of people to self-govern (the destruction of large, multi-ethnic
PRE WAR AIMS • Austria-Hungary: expand territory on the Yugoslav peninsula, Italian Peninsula, Russia • Germany: Mittel. Europa Plan (to control central Europe and its vast fertile land to settle German people across it) • Ottoman Empire: Expand territory on the Yugoslav Peninsula; Expand territory in Central Asia; Expand territory in North Africa and SW Asia
BEFORE THE U. S. GETS INVOLVED • Germany invades Belgium, pushes on to nearly Paris • 1 st Battle of the Marne (the Miracle at the Marne): 5 -12 September 1914, taxis ferry men from Paris to the front. Allied victory as Germany is pushed back and stalemate on the Western front sets in. • Near Ypres, Belgium (1915): Germany uses poison gas—first use in warfare • Battle of the Somme (1916): England rolls out tanks—first use in warfare • Stalemate on the Eastern Front leads to revolt in Russia • The Russian Revolution: the Tsar is deposed, a provisional government chooses to stay in the war. • As conditions worsen: Germany sends Lenin from exile in Switzerland back to Russia and the Bolsheviks take power • Russia signs the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk which cedes massive lands claims to Germany but ends the external conflict between Russia and its enemy neighbors
US SOLDIERS WEARING GAS MASKS
LT. COL. GEORGE S. PATTON: 1 ST U. S. TANK BRIGADE U. S. used French Renault Tanks (lighter and faster, but penetrable). The America 500 tanks and were vital to Pershing’s Meuse-Argonne Offensive driving the Germ
THE ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM Berlin, January 19, 1917 On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America. If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement. . You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months. Zimmerman (Secretary of State)
AMERICA MOBILIZES FOR WAR • When U. S. declares war (April 1917) the regular Army numbers 133 K w 185 K National Guardsman and 17 K officers in federal reserve forces • May 18, 1917 Selective Service Act: The Draft! 3 million called to service (1/3 found unfit and 1/3 dismissed on other grounds); 500 K were drafted into service (90% single; 70% farmers/manual labors) • By end of 1917: 700 K volunteers • Late May 1917: AEF (American Expeditionary Force) leaves for France • U. S. will eventually put 4. 8 million men in uniform (1/25 people)
THE U. S. COMES TO THE RESCUE • With fresh soldiers on the Western Front, Germany stakes all of its hopes on a major offensive 1917 -1918 Germany reconquers the most land since the 1 st offensive of the War (get nearly to Paris again!) • The U. S. provide a fresh supply of troops to push back the Central Powers • May 28, 1918 Battle of Cantigny: (first U. S. led victory) • June 1918: U. S. Marines repel the German advance at Belleau Woods “Retreat? Hell, we just got here!” --Marine Capt. Lloyd Williams (when being encouraged to retreat by French/British officers); the U. S. suffers approx. 10 K casualties (approx. 3 K Marines of 9 K total in theater!) • Battle of Saint Mihiel: General John Pershing leads AEF forces (500 K) • Muese-Argonne Offensive: Gen. Pershing leads 1 million troops in final push to clear France/Belgium of Germans (September 26 -Nov. 11, 1918); Over 26 K American killed: 100 K wounded
U. S. GENERAL JOHN J. PERSHING
ADVANCING TOWARD CANTIGNY
Belleau Woods: The site of fierce conflict. The U. S. Marines prevail….
BATTLE OF BELLEAU-WOOD
ST. MIHIEL OFFENSIVE
AFRICAN-AMERICANS ON THE MARCH
ON THE LINE
INFANTRY UNDER FIRE
HOTCHKISS HEAVY MACHINE-GUN
U. S. SOLDIER WITH CHAUCHAT
Browning Automatic Rifle: Saw use at end of WWI, relied upon heavily in WWII, Kor in Vietnam. Replaced by the M 60. Shoots standard 30 -06 round.
U. S. SOLDIER WITH BAR
CASUALTY COMPARISONS ALL MAJOR U. S. WARS
WWI OUTCOMES • Treaty of Versaille: Ends war with Germany held responsible for war. Germany cedes territory; Military restrictions; Germany pays 32 Billion DM in reparations ($450 Billion dollars today). Some say too harsh; others not harsh enough… • Treaty of Sevres: Ends WWI w Ottoman Empire broken up—most notably British Palestine and Iraq, and French Syria now exist. Military restrictions, reparations, International loans must be approved by the Allied Powers, the end of an empire… Far more punitive than Versaille. • Treaty of Trianon: ends WWI w Austria-Hungary. The empire hacked up into smaller, independent countries. “War of the Pygmies” –Winston Churchill’s description of the smaller wars which broke out following WWI in central, south, and eastern Europe (over new territorial disputes).
WHAT DO YOU REMEMBER AS WWI’S LEGACY?