- Slides: 45
World War I The Great War The War to End All Wars The Trench War
Causes • OVER VIEW –Nationalism –Militarism and the Arms Race –Alliances –Imperialism
Nationalism • Nationalism- the feeling that your country is better than all others and that its interests should go before that of other countries or the world – Fierce competition evolved in everything from trade to the acquisition of colonies
Imperialism • The tendency towards imperialism led countries to shoot first and ask questions later…. . • There was a culture of expansionism that was common throughout the world Europe 1914
Imperialism • Became a “competition” between nations – Great Britain and Germany were racing to colonize Africa…. . Only Liberia and Ethiopia were independent – France and Germany were competing for control of Morocco – Russia was trying to control the Serbs and all of the Slovak people
Militarism • Arms race – when countries stockpile arms and expand armies as a show of strength – To justify expense there was often pressure to use force
Alliances • Alliances – mutual assurance of assistance in the event of attack • Allies – France, Great Britain and Russia • Russia and Serbia • Central Powers – Germany, Austria. Hungary, Ottoman Empire (Turkey) and Italy – Other small countries had side agreements that bound the larger powers as well
Trigger for War • June 28 th 1914 – Archduke Franz Ferdinand his wife were assassinated in Sarejavo – Group named “The Black Hand” Responsible • Their goal was to reunite all of Serbia • Causes chain reaction that leads to war
Alliances blow the event into World War • Austria-Hungary moves troops to put down any uprising in Serbia • Russia begins amassing troops and weapons on border with Austria Hungary in support of Serbia • Germany declares war on Russia in support of Austria. Hungary • France declares war on Germany and Austria-Hungary in support of Russia • Great Britain declares war on Germany in support of France • GAME ON!
The War • 65 million men fought in the war • 20 million were wounded • 10 million dead • 20 million died of “other” causes – Starvation – Disease – Accidents
American Neutrality • Neutral – not to choose sides or “play Favorites – Public did not want to get involved in conflict 3000 miles away – 8 million German immigrants living in US – Close ties with Great Britain • Language • Trading partner – Signs of war atrocities started to sway public opinion
German U-Boats and European Blockade • Submarines – ship able to submerge under the sea, surface and fire torpedoes – Torpedo is a “swimming “ bomb that propelled itself though water to a target. – Germans sunk all ships, that might carry contraband – that stuff that helps an army to fight • Weapons, Food, Clothes etc.
Strategy • Germans attack through neutral Belgium – Easiest and shortest route to French Capital – Paris – French and English are able to stop advance and both sides dig in for the long haul. • Blockade of Europe with U-Boats • Increase Alliances – Mexico Europe – 1914
Weapons of War • Technology dramatically increased the effectiveness of the methods using in killing people. Trench Warfare Gas attach – Machine guns – some could shoot 500 rounds per minute – Artillery – big guns could shoot and exploding shell that weighed 1800 lbs. 9 miles (shell size that of a V. W. bug)
Air War • http: //www. youtube. com/ watch? v=x. A 4 SEp. U 3 Wv. M • Zeppelins • Fighter planes Albatross C III Fokker D VII – Dog Fights – Bombing runs Sopwith Camel
The Trench warfare made it very difficult forces to use traditional methods of fighting - frontal attacks were basically suicidal. - very difficult to do flanking maneuvers - all modes of transportation were too slow or too vulnerable to attack New weapons had to be developed to counteract the trench Medics help injured soldier in a trench.
Weapons of War • Chemical Weapons – Poison Gas • Nerve Gas – paralyzed the diaphragm, suffocating its victim. • Mustard Gas – burned skin and caused blindness – Flame throwers • Used gasoline or other accelerant sprayed in fine mist and ignited • Moveable Artillery – Tank • Use of armor to protect occupants of fighting vehicle – Idea of moveable weapons greatly changed they war was fought
Images of War US Engineer Battalion Destruction of bridge by artillery Americans in the trenches
US leans towards war • Lusitania – 1198 people were killed • 120 Americans – Germany threatens to sink all ships in international waters inbound to Europe
Zimmerman Note • Zimmerman Note – US intercepts coded message from German government to the German Ambassador to Mexico • Offers to assist Mexico to reclaim lands of Texas, New Mexico, California and Arizona if Mexico agrees to fight with the Germans • Offers “generous” monetary aid – Goal was to keep US occupied in the Western Hemisphere to prevent the US from entering the war in Europe.
Congress Declares War • American Public was slow to respond to the call of war – Congress institutes the Draft – 24 million men were registered for the draft • 3 million men were drafted through the lottery method • Women were not allowed to join up – Were allowed as noncombatants in some service areas – Lower pay and fewer benefits
Russian Revolution • Russian Revolution – Spring 1918 – Bolsheviks overthrew the Russian Czar and took over the country – Signed peace treaty with Germany and withdrew from the war – Allows Germany to focus troops on the Western Front
American Involvement • Russia signs separate peace agreement with the Germans – following their revolution • Germany was able to focus attacks on one front – the western front in France – American “doughboys” arrive just in time to slow and eventually stop the German advance in numerous battles. – Americans fought side by side with the French, British, and Italians in the trenches
Transporting Troops • Shipping became a priority industry during the war – All shipyard workers were exempt (excused) from the draft • Fabrication - method of ship-building that use parts made somewhere else that were assembled at the shipyard. – Dramatically cut down the time needed to build a ship
Convoy System • Strategy used to protect troop and supply ships from U-Boats as they crossed the Atlantic – Sailed in tightly packed formations – Surrounded by Naval Destroyers and Cruisers, who sailed in circles around the convoy • Used planes and subdestroyers to combat the U-Boats – Depth Charges World War 1 US Naval Destroyer
Doughboys • General Pershing put in Command of the American Expeditionary Force – Refused to split up forces to reinforce European units – Fought in coordination with European Troops but as a separate army • Allows Allies to reorganize troops and took a lot of pressure off of British and French troops
The War and the Economy • The Government took control of the Economy following the Declaration of War – President Created the War Industries Board to oversee production • Encouraged use of mass production techniques • Instituted Price Controls • Mediated Labor Disputes – Encouraged citizens to do without to promote the war effort through rationing • Meatless days, gasless Sundays, etc.
Financing the War • The immense cost of war was funded in 2 ways – Taxes • War Profits Tax on industries that profited from the war • Wealth Tax – taxed wealthy Americans at a higher rate • Luxury or Sin Taxes – taxed items like liquor, tobacco, and other vices – Liberty Bonds – individual citizens loaned money directly to the gov’t by purchasing bonds • On average every American loaned the government over $400 dollars – a very large amount at the time.
America at War • American forces joined the fight in May of 1918 – Were able to stop the German advance just 50 miles from Paris – Slowly Allied forces started to win victories and push the Germans back towards the border – Very costly in a series of battles • 48, 000 Americans dead from battle • 62, 000 Americans dead from disease • 200, 000 Americans wounded • Battle of the Argonne Forest had 140, 000 American casualties alone Americans in the trenches Germans in the trenches
Propaganda • The spreading of ideas, information or rumor for the purpose of helping or injuring a cause – Not necessary factual – Aimed at getting an emotional response – Tries to sway public opinion in a certain direction
Propaganda • President creates Committee on Public Information headed by George Creel – Movies, Books, pamphlets and music were created to support the War Effort – 4 minute men • 75, 000 men were hired to give 4 minute speeches on War programs – Victory gardens, rationing, liberty bonds and the draft – Millions of people heard these men speak throughout the country
The Espionage and Sedition Acts • Fear at Home – Following the Russian Revolution, people in the US feared the spread of communism – Congress passed the Espionage Act in 1917 that made it illegal to oppose the draft, war bonds or the arms industry. – Congress passed the Sedition Act in 1918 that made it illegal to use disloyal language in the press – Both were upheld by the Supreme Court because the country was at war – and major curbs on 1 st Amendment rights were OK when we are at war
Life at Home • Baseball – Pro baseball flourished • National Parks – National Park Service was created • 16 national parks were in existence at this time – Wide use of the Automobile allowed citizens to easily access parks – Hunting and Fishing became popular – Camping emerged as a way for people who could not afford cabins to enjoy the outdoors
Life at Home • Movies – Westerns were popular – shorts 10 -25 minutes in length – Charlie Chaplin became famous as “The Tramp” and earned a salary way over $1 million. – Full feature movies were introduced that lasted well over 3 hours
Science and Technology • Skyscrapers – Bridges and Tunnels • Panama Canal • Automobiles – Assembly line invented by Henry Ford • Cut assembly time from 14 hours per car to 93 minutes • Used prefabricated parts • Same methods were used in war production
The War Ends • November 11, 1918 at 11 AM in the morning, Germany surrenders to Allied Forces.
Peace • Kaiser abdicates thrown and new German govt. asks for cease fire • Flu pandemic strikes the US • Wilson delivers his 14 points speech • Peace Conference between the “Big Four” in Versailles, France – France, Great Britain, U. S. and Italy – Central Powers did not attend peace conference
Wilson’s 14 Points • President Wilson’s plan for lasting peace – First 5 dealt with causes of war • • • Outlawed secret diplomacy Outlawed secret treaties Outlawed the stockpiling of arms (Arms Race) Violations of the freedom of the seas Trade barriers – tariffs
14 Points • Nine of the points dealt with self-determination – How the people of Europe should govern themselves • Most important to Wilson was the creation of the League of Nations – Body designed to mediate disputes between nations and prevent offensive wars • There was considerable opposition to his plan from European political leaders
Versailles Peace Conference • Only attended by the Big Four – Central powers were not invited – Much compromise occurred on the 14 points in order to save the League of Nations – European Leaders wanted Germany to “pay” for the war • In $ • To be punished
Treaty of Versailles • Treaty was signed on June 28 th, 1919 – Redrew Map • Added Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia – Demilitarized Germany – Forced Germany to pay reparations of $33 billion – Created League of Nations
Wilson’s last days • American Public wanted to remain Isolationist – not involved in World Affairs • Wilson refused to compromise on the Treaty of Versailles • Gave 35 speeches in 22 days and collapsed in exhaustion
Opposition to Treaty at Home • Congress did not like the idea of giving up power to a “world government” like the United Nations • Wilson tried to influence congress by doing a whistle stop tour and giving speeches all across America • He wore himself out and had a stroke that basically left him bedridden for the remainder of his presidency • The treaty never passed and we did not become members of the United Nations – European Leaders used this to punish Germany as much as possible – Much resentment was created in Germany – This lays the ground work for WW II. • US signed a separate peace treaty with Germany and the Central Powers
Aftermath of War • Communism and the Soviet Union • Beginning of Economic Expansion called the Roaring Twenties • Time of Great Societal Change – Constitutional Amendments – Changing Values • US as world power