- Slides: 21
WORLD WAR I EVENTS OF WAR INTRO REVIEW VIDEO: TECH DEVELOPMENTS OF WAR
AMERICAN NEUTRALITY Officially, the U. S. was a neutral country. However, we traded food, weapons, oil, steel, and other goods far more with the Allied Powers than with the Central Powers.
PROPAGANDA Both the Allied Powers and Central powers used PROPAGANDA (one sided information used to persuade) Tried to make their enemies seem savage.
FREEDOM OF THE SEAS The U. S. , as a neutral nation, claimed the right to trade with either side in the war. However, Britain and Germany set up blockades around the British and German coasts.
TROUBLED WATER German submarines, called U-BOATS, torpedoed enemy ships and neutral ships trading with the enemy. (VIDEO)
A German U-boat Torpedoes a Steamer, circa 1916
SINKING OF THE LUSITANIA Two years earlier in 1915, a German submarine torpedoed the LUSITANIA, a British passenger ship, killing approximately 1, 200 people, including 128 Americans
Americans were infuriated with the destruction of the Lusitania. Germany promised to stop attacking neutral ships. But two yrs. later did it again, knowing it would lead to war with U. S sank 3 more ships (VIDEO)
ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM Secret message from Germany to ambassador in Mexico urging them to attack U. S. if the U. S. declared war on Germany • Germany promised to help Mexico regain land it lost to the U. S. in Mexican War. • British intercepted it & U. S. declared war on Central Powers in 1917.
MOVING TOWARD WAR • WWI became a TOTAL WAR all resources are devoted to war effort • Thousands of women went to work in factories to replace the men • Almost no unemployment most factories turned to munitions • Goods in short supply led to rationing (buy only small amounts)
ß VIDEO: US Involvement in the War “SWOOPING FROM THE WEST”
SWOOPING IN FROM THE WEST • Russia’s withdrawal from WWI due to revolution: Russia signs Treaty of Brest. Litovsk w/Germany & gave up land • Led to increased German troops in Western Front • Late May of 1918 German troops were weakened from push to claim Paris • Allies sensed weakness, US helped with arrival of 2 million troops • Central Powers began to crumble- German soldiers turned on Kaiser Wilhelm II
PEACE AT LAST Germany declares itself a republic At 11 a. m. on November 11, 1918, Germany agreed to an armistice (cease fire), ending World War I signed Treaty of Versailles But many are still left bitter & betrayed from “war guilt clause”….
* Approximately 13 million people died and 20 million were wounded in the war.
MANDATE SYSTEM • During World War I, Great Britain & France agreed to divide large portions of Ottoman Empire in the Middle East between themselves. • After the war, “mandate system” gave Great Britain & France control over lands that became: – Iraq, Transjordan, and Palestine (British controlled) – Syria and Lebanon (French controlled). • Division of Ottoman Empire through the mandate system planted the seeds for future conflicts in the Middle East
Highlight – British Mandates Highlight – French Mandates