- Slides: 57
World War 2 Unit CAUSES of World War II
Standard(s) of Learning -1 USII. 1 The student will demonstrate skills for historical and geographical analysis and responsible citizenship, including the ability to: b) make connections between the past and the present; c) sequence events in U. S. history from 1865 to the present; d) interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives; f) analyze and interpret maps that include major physical features.
Standard(s) of Learning -1 USII. 7 - The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major causes and effects of American involvement in World War II by: a) identifying the causes and events that led to American involvement in the war, including the attack on Pearl Harbor; b) locating and describing the major events and turning points of the war in Europe and the Pacific; c) describing the impact of the war on the home front.
Between the Wars: Society Changes!
Issues Between the Wars:
The Causes, Effects and Reactions – The Great Depression!!
Causes of World War 2 l Political and economic conditions in Europe following World War I led to the rise of fascism and to World War II. l The rise of fascism threatened peace in Europe and Asia.
Rise of Fascism l What is fascism? l Fascism is a political philosophy in which total power is given to a dictator, individual freedoms are denied, and nationalism and, often, racism are emphasized.
The Nature of Fascism l Fascism glorified action, violence, discipline, and blind loyalty to the state. l Pursues foreign expansion through warfare. l Fascists distrust reason and use emotion to their advantage. l The state is all.
What is Fascism?
Rise of Fascism l Fascist dictators include (AXIS POWERS): l Adolf Hitler (Germany) l Benito Mussolini (Italy) l Hideki Tojo (Japan)
Rise of Fascism l Benito Mussolini (Italy)
Mussolini and his Fascists March on Rome in 1922 – Given political power
Italy-Benito Mussolini 1883 -1945 Il Duce l Italy- in political and economic crisis, people scared for future l Mussolini had support of middle class – they were seeking stability l 1922 - march on Rome- Victor Emmanuel made him PM
Mussolini’s Rise to Power l Italian nationalists, led by Benito Mussolini, felt betrayed by the government and the Allies from World War I. l They revolted and became powerful through terror. l The Fascists, were handed the government by the king in order to avoid a civil war.
What did Mussolini Promise the Italian People? l Promised the middle class job stability. u Built up the Italian Army, Navy l He promised to drop the unemployment rate. u He put the unemployed into the military! l Promised to rebuild the infrastructure of Italy u Built new roads, bridges across Italy
Mussolini’s Rule l Italy was officially a parliamentary monarchy (like England) l Mussolini made it a dictatorship. l He used propaganda and terror to control the people. l The Fascists wanted everyone to live and work ONLY for the state.
Mussolini’s Rise To Power
Rise of Fascism l Adolf Hitler (Germany)
January 1933: Hitler became Chancellor of Germany
Hitler soon ordered a program of rearming Germany Hitler visits a factory and is enthusiastically greeted. Many Germans were grateful for jobs after the misery of the depression years.
Adolf Hitler 1889 -1945 “Der Fuhrer” l born in Austria-early life in Vienna l core of beliefs- anti-Semitic l wrote “Mein Kampf” while he was in jail in 20’s l built Nazi party on the German people’s dissatisfaction
Adolf Hitler 1889 -1945 “Der Fuhrer” l Won over elite and establishment u Promised them new contracts l Fear of communists- largest party u became chancellor
Adolf Hitler 1889 -1945 “Der Fuhrer” l Reichstag burned-emergency powers l Hitler used fire to become dictator l He used his power to create “The Nazi State in 1933”
The Nazi State 19331945 l. Totalitarian State techniques u. Use terror to control their people upropaganda masters umass demonstrations urearmament of the military
The Nazi State 19331945 WORK!
The Nazi State 1933 -1945 l SS control of police using terror based on Nazi ideology (secret police, camps concentration and extermination)
The Nazi State 1933 -1945 l Churches and youth groups under Nazi control l GOAL: Aryan Racial purity
Political and Economic Conditions in Europe l Political instability and economic devastation in Europe resulting from World War I: u Worldwide depression u EXTREMELY HIGH war debt owed by Germany u High inflation u Massive unemployment
Political and Economic Conditions in Europe What political and economic conditions in Europe following World War I led to the rise of fascism and eventually to World War II?
Reasons the People Voted them into Power l Conditions were so bad in Germany and to a certain extent in Italy after WWI that the people were looking for a very different type of government.
They WERE ELECTED! l Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini were elected by the people of their countries.
Reasons the People Voted them into Power l They promised to bring their countries out of the depression, give them jobs, give them food, and other resources the people needed to survive-rather than continue to have nothing and starve.
Reasons the People Voted them into Power l Both leaders promised to bring their nations back to their “Days of Glory” u ITALY – Bring back glory of the Roman Empire, and to control the Mediterranean Sea. u GERMANY-Rid Germany of the oppressive Treaty of Versailles that crushed Germany.
Class Discussion Question: Why would a country elect a leader who believes in fascism?
Mini-Quiz Time! l Please read and write the question. l Skip 2 lines between the questions so you can write down the correct answer at the end.
Quiz Answers l 1 = B l 2 = C l 3 = B l 4 = C
Rise of Communism l In the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin set up a totalitarian state. l He took away all free market rights and made every enterprise and farm state owned. l Stalin Means “Man of Steel”
Rise of Communism l Workers have very little incentive to produce quality products or extra food. l The country struggled to feed its people.
Stalin’s Terror Tactics l Stalin was ruthless against anyone perceived as being disloyal. He set up Gulags (prisons) where people would be sent to work. l Stalin took food away from farm families in what was called the Terror Famine. l He killed many of its best and brightest citizens.
Communist Attempts to Control Thinking l Stalin used propaganda to boost his popularity. l Posters, loudspeaker announcements, and newspaper articles extolled Communism. l All art forms that were critical of Stalin were censored. l He also tried to replace religion with communist ideology.
Soviet Society Under Stalin l There was still a class order under Communism, but this one put party members at the top. l Non-party members endured shortages of food and consumer goods, although they did get free education and health care. l Women were treated as equals to men in the workplace.
Soviet Foreign Policy l The Soviets encouraged communist revolutions in other countries. l The USSR supported revolutionary groups around the world. l This caused a “Red Scare” in the United States.
Stalin Was Looking Ahead l Stalin succeeded in making his country a military superpower. l But it was also home to people with a MUCH lower standard of living than the rest of the developed world.
Soviet Union Under Stalin. Chart
Soviet Mini Quiz
Who was the worst killer?
Important African-American People and Efforts During World War. Randolph II l A. Phillip l CORE l Double-V l Tuskegee Airmen
A. Phillip Randolph l Leader in effort for civil rights for African-Americans during WW 2
CORE l Nonviolent civil rights group created during WW 2
Double-V l Public campaign by African-Americans during WW 2 to end segregation at home while fighting the Axis abroad
Tuskegee Airmen l Fighter pilots made up of African- Americans in WW 2 that escorted bombers – were considered the best by many people.