- Slides: 25
World in 1750
The Mughal Empire
Background of the Mughal Empire Developed in India and Pakistan 16 th and 17 centuries Mughals means Mongols Mughals were Muslims
Religious and Ethnic Tolerance Ruled a large Hindu majority Intermarried Allowed Hindus to serve in government and in the military Respect Great for Human Rights religious tolerance
Political Organization Centralized government bringing together many smaller kingdoms Abu Akbar—considered one of the greatest rulers of all time. Believed rulers had a duty to treat all believers equally Leaders in each province were responsible for quality of government in their territory Ended tax imposed on non-Muslims
Commercial Activity Growth of trade and commerce Traded with Arabia, Egypt, Persia, and Asia Integrated Exported into the global trading network cotton, sugarcane, pepper, ginger, indigo and opium
Bell Activity 9/18 Describe how the Muslim Mughals treated the Hindus in their empire.
The Ottoman Empire
Background Region previously Eastern part of the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire. Conquered Reached by the Ottoman Turks its height in 1500 s under Sulieman the Magnificent.
Religious and Ethnic Tolerance Practiced religious tolerance but Islam/Muslims given top priority. Millet System-religious and ethnic minorities were given limited power to rule own communities. Devshirme System: required certain percent of non. Muslim children given to the state to serve in military and convert to Islam.
Political Organization Government Ruthless Civil highly centralized in dealings with local leaders service system based on merit Islam incorporated into the government structure
Commercial Activity Istanbul—capital (was Constantinople) center of trade Leader Mehmet high focus on increasing trade. Encouraged Jewish traders to move into the empire. Jews had were persecuted under the Christian Byzantine Empire.
Bell Activity 9/20 Name two similarities between the Ottoman and Mughal empires.
Background “Warring States” period—Daimyos fought one another for control—decentralized area 1600 Tokugawa Ieyasu completed unification of Japan 1603 -Ieyasu sole leader of Japan moved capital to Edo
Treatment of Nobles Daimyos—large landowners part of the Japanese feudal system Ieyasu controlled nobles while allowing them local power, helped centralize power Daimyos were required to live long periods of time in Edo
Political Structure, Centralization, and Bureaucracy Emperor was a figurehead—Shogun (military leader) held real power Japanese feudalism differed from European feudalism in that power was both centralized and localized Merchants—bottom of social structure but gained more power with increasing wealth
Cities Edo grew as capital with population of over 1 million-later became Tokyo Increased contact with Europeans but in 1639 Ieyasu closed Japan to foreigners and expelled Christians. Japanese were not allowed to leave.
Bourbon Dynasty FRANCE
Background 1562 -1598 Eight religious wars between Catholics and Huguenots (French Protestants) 1598—Edict of Nantes granted religious tolerance in France (canceled by Louis XIV) Louis XIV (1643 -1715—Known as the Sun King— came to power at 4 years old
Treatment of Nobles Bourbon Kings strengthened power of monarchy Louis XIV excluded nobles from councils and forced many to live at palace in Versailles
Political Structure, Centralization, and Bureaucracy Reduced power of nobles Palace of Versailles built to centralize power
Cities Louis XIV invested in arts and literature Moved seat of government from Paris to Versailles, saw Paris as stronghold of the nobles Louis XIV’s lavish spending put France into massive debt