- Slides: 41
World I Review Islamic Empires Interactions and Conflict
Importance of Trade • By the 15 th Century, technological and scientific advances had been exchanged among the cultures of the world: • Paper, the compass, silk, & porcelain (China) • Textiles, numerical system (India & Ottomans) • Medicine, astronomy, and mathematics (Mideast, Africa, and Asia)
The Islamic Empires
The Ottomans • The Ottoman Empire lasted for over 600 years (13 th to 19 th Centuries) • Fell in 1922 (after WWI) • The Ottoman Empire was concentrated in Asia Minor on the Anatolian Peninsula. • It emerged as a political and economic power following the fall of Constantinople (1453) , which was renamed Istanbul.
The Ottoman Empire
The Ottomans • The Ottomans expanded their empire into • Southwest Asia (Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel, and parts of Saudi Arabia) • Southern Europe (Balkan Peninsula: Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, and Albania) • Parts of North Africa. • The Ottomans ruled Christians, Jews, and Muslims but ISLAM (Sunni) was the unifying religion.
The Ottomans • The Ottoman Empire benefited from its location: controlled most east/west trade. • The Empire produced mostly coffee and ceramics. • The spices, silks, timber, gunpowder, technological advances passed through their empire on the way to Europe, which made them rich.
Important People • Osman ( leader of the tribe 1300 -1326) • Nomadic Turk • Warrior for Islam = ghazis • Began raiding eastern fringes of Byzantine Empire • Captured parts of Anatolia and settled there • West called him Othman – Ottomans named after him • Gunpowder = first people to use cannons and carried muskets
Important People • Mehmet II (the Conqueror) • Captured Constantinople from Byzantine Christians • Renamed Istanbul
Turning point in history: Capture of Constantinople
Important People • Suleiman I (1520) “The Magnificent” • Empire reaches height * Ottoman Rule ~ kind ~ appointed local Sultans ~ improved lives of peasants ~ non-Muslims pay tax • Siege on Vienna • Empire fell – corruption
Cultural Achievements • Cultural Diffusion – blending of cultures • Astronomy and math • Schools • Art and Literature • Spices, Silk (from China) • Used Gunpowder (from China)
Political Characteristics • Vizier – head administrator • Over time gained power over the sultans • Janissaries – elite military group, which gained great power • “Devshirme” – Young Christian boys, from conquered territories, became slaves to Sultan • Learned Turkish and converted to Islam • Served as bureaucrats or infantrymen in army
Ottoman Janissaries Elite military group; Power based on cannons & firearms
I. Ottoman Empire Special Topics Ottoman treatment of non-Muslims 1. Millet System = “Millet” comes from Arabic word for nation 2. Religious groups = Millets 3. Christians = Millet; Jews = Millet 4. Millets could choose own religious leader 5. Follow own religious laws 6. Polytheists persecuted
Fall of Ottoman • Began to decline in 17 th century – too large to maintain • • Could not control local governments that pocketed taxes Peasant revolts Succession issues Janissaries demands • Fall of Ottoman Empire • Crash Course
Battle of Lepanto (1571) Ottoman Empire vs. Spain (Phillip II) Spain wins; Ottomans lose control of Mediterranean
Safavid • The Safavid Empire consisted of present day Iran and parts of Afghanistan and Russia. • Ruled by a Shah or emperor. • Islam (Shiite) was the unifying religion. • Caught between the Ottomans and the Mughals and thus has limited influence.
Safavid • Members of an Islamic brotherhood joined Shi’a Muslims • Isma’il (1499) • Leader of army – 14 yrs old • Fought Ottomans (Sunni Muslim) • • Destroyed Sunni population in Baghdad Selim the Grim responded by killing nearly 40, 000 Shi’a Muslims Qizilbash – “redheads” – calvalry armed with swords and knives No Navy was every built • Fighting still continues today
Cultural Blending • Golden Age 1588 • Shah Abbas “Abbas the Great” (1588 -1629) Blend of Persian, Ottoman, and Arab worlds Reformed army (2 armies; 1 Persian and 1 Ottoman) Reformed government Punished corruption Created good relationships with Europe and China • Collapse under internal attacks • • • * Persian rugs * Architecture * Sufism
Safavid architecture – colorful floral designs
Shah Abbas the Great Safavid Ruler
Safavid Empire Special Topics - Ottoman-Safavid Conflict - Ottoman Sunni vs. Safavid Shia conflict ~ continual border fighting Miniature depicting ~Ottoman take Safavid territory Ottoman victory ~Result = Sunni-Shia conflict today in over the Safavids region (Iraq & Iran)
The Mughals • Descendants of the Mongols, Muslim Mughal (Mogul) rulers of India and surrounding regions. • Babur – descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan conquered Delhi • Location of their Empire: • Northern India • Parts of Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan.
Founded • Golden Age (1556 -1605) • Akbar “Great One” • Religious Freedom • Blended cultures – Islam and Hinduism • Sikhism – new religion, rejects Caste System • Attempted to outlaw the practice of sati • Built Military – lots of fire power • Language – Hindi = mix of Persian and local • Shah Jahan • Built Taj Mahal (Tomb!) • • Built it after wife died (Mumtaz Mahal) She died after giving birth to 14 th child 20, 000 workers – 22 years = much suffering Purdah – strict enforcement of women not venturing outside the home unescorted
Cultural characteristics • Conflicts between Muslims and Hindu's • Nanuk – stressed meditation as a means of seeking enlightenment and utilized both religions teachings • Guru (religious leader) – of new religion called Sikhism • Akbar – “Devine Faith” - combined Muslim, Hindu, Zoroastrian, Christian and Sikh beliefs
Architectural Styles Ottoman Safavid Mughal
The Mughals • Contributions • Spread Islam into India • The Mughals ruled an empire of mostly Hindu. • Like the Ottomans they built many impressive temples and shrines. • Taj Mahal • Their culture was a blend of Hindu and Muslim. • They carried on an extensive trade with the Europeans after their arrival during the late 15 th Century.
The Mughals • The Portuguese, British, and Dutch (Netherlands) all competed for the Indian Ocean trade. • These Europeans (French, Dutch, Portuguese) arrived in India in the late 14 th century-set up trading posts. • Western Coast with local rulers of the Mughal Empire. • The British gained a monopoly by the 1600 s. • Cotton and Indian textiles were the primary product.
Mughal Empire Special Topics - Intensification of Peasant Labor - Indian cotton textile production ~British textile industry demands = more Indian production/ increased peasant labor
• Explore the Taj Mahal
Ottoman Empire On which seas did the Ottomans have the greatest influence? Land-Based “Gunpowder” Empires: Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals What is the commonality between Tours and Vienna? Significant accomplishment of Suleiman the Magnificent? In short, how did Janissaries gain power & influence? Safavid Empire The Safavid Empire strengthened the position of which form of Islam? Describe the “Devshirme” system. What was a main reason for conflict between Ottomans and Safavids? How are these conflicts reflected in this region today? Like the Byzantine Empire before it, the Ottoman Empire enjoyed commercial success by controlling which narrow waterway? Reasons contributing to Ottoman decline? Economically, how were the Ottomans weakened by European nations? Which form of Islam dominated Ottoman society? Technologically, what attitudes kept the Ottomans behind the Europeans? Greatest Safavid ruler? His emphasis/strengths? (Also see excerpt on 313) Couple reasons Safavids had less trade contact with Europeans? Safavid culture centered around which local culture/traditions? Example of distinctive Shi’ite/Persian architectural influence? Significance of Battle of Lepanto? Roughly, how long did the Ottomans outlast the Safavids?
Mughal Empire Which “empire” preceded Mughal control of the subcontinent? What was always an obstacle to cohesive rule in India? Founder of Mughal Empire? In space on left, create an organizer illustrating “Akbar’s Reforms” - include religious reform from pg. 318 Highly-valued Indian commodity traded for by the Europeans? Significance of the Taj Mahal? In space on left, create an organizer illustrating “Women in Indian Society” Prior to Mughal control, what new religion had developed in India? And the main motivations for creation of this religion? Make a cultural comparison between the period ruled by Jahangir and Shah Jahan and that of 15 th-16 th century Italy. Write a comprehensive thesis statement analyzing how Aurangzeb’s policies led to the British take-over of India. Create a simple timeline identifying the rule of India between 2000 B. C. E. and 1750 C. E.
Islamic Land-Based Empires – 1450 -1750 “Gunpowder Empires” Ottoman Empire: Original location: Asia Minor Expansion and extent of the Ottoman Empire: Southwest Asia Southeastern Europe Balkan Peninsula North Africa Characteristics: Capital = Constantinople renamed Istanbul Islamic Sunni religion = unifying force that accepted other religions Main trade = coffee & ceramics Mughal Empire: Location: North India Contribution of Mughal Rulers: - Further spread of Islam into India - Art & architecture – Taj Mahal - Establishment of European trading posts - Influence of Indian textiles: British textile industry expands; peasant labor intensifies. Trade with European Nations - Portugal, England, France, & the Netherlands (Dutch) competed for the Indian Ocean trade by establishing coastal ports on the Indian sub-continent Southern India trade: Silk, spices and gems Safavid Empire: Original Location: SW Asia, Persia, Modern Iran Expansion and extent of the Safavid Empire: Hindu Kush Mts. in the east (to Mughal Empire) Zagros Mts. in the west (to Ottoman Empire) Characteristics: Persian culture and architecture Shia Islam unified and legitimized empire and rule Main trade = Persian carpets
. Tours - 732