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WORLD HISTORY Unit #7 – Late Modern Euro History Lesson #702 Ideologies and Revolutions of Early 1800 s
Growth of Democracy (enfranchisement) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Right to vote (franchise) Only for the rich land owners As Middle Class grew in size and influence They demanded the right to vote Led to the GREAT REFORM BILL OF 1832 – (add wealthy middle class the right to vote) 6. Workers demanded right to vote 7. By 1867 – all men allowed to vote 8. Women allowed in 1918 2
Who should be allowed to vote? • In your group, devise a law that discusses voting rights • What restrictions should be placed on voting? • Examples: age, knowledge, experience, location of where you were born, wealth, etc. • Who should be allowed to govern? • What limits should be placed on them?
New Ideas about Society 1. Workers treated as machines 2. Karl Marx said, this makes them PROLETARIAT 3. Proletariat will protest 4. Proletariat will eventually overthrow factory owners 5. Create a classless society 6. Everyone is equal 4
Failure of Marxism 1. Marx believed Proletariat was destined to overpower owners 2. And create a new society 3. He called his system “communism” 4. (based on communal property) 5. But, socialists scored government laws 6. Working conditions improved 7. Marx prediction did not come true 5
New Political Ideas • • • Conservatism Liberalism Socialism Industrialization Marxism WHAT IS THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT, WHEN IT COMES TO FACTORIES AND WORKERS? 7
Conservatism • Describe “conservative” • This was the “old” belief structure • It supported Kings and Nobles having control • Hobbes had said you need a powerful leader with complete control • Otherwise… • Man would kill other men… 8
Britain, post Napoleon • • Parliament still manipulated by the king Post war – economy was messy Led to a Tory ministry (only 8% could vote) How could they justify that small number? – Conservative – Supported landed wealthy – Corn Law – tariff on grain imports – Combination Acts – outlawed unions – Coercion Act of 1817 – suspension of habeas corpus and freedom of speech • Led to Peterloo massacre (1819) • Militia called in to dispurse – 11 killed
In your group, come up with a definition of MIDDLE CLASS
Golden Age of Middle Class • People started defining themselves by a class • Developed class awareness • Classes developed personality • Why was Middle Class gaining in power and influence? • Spheres for women became more pronounced and defined • Men (and women) protected the integrity of women like it was an “investment” • What does “home, sweet home” mean? Cotton imports & Iron exports
Opposition to Middle Class • William Blake: factories = “satanic mills” • William Wordsworth: sad for end of rural life • Marx & Engels – Conditions of the Working Class (1844) – “I charge the English Middle Classes with mass murder, wholesale robbery and all the other crimes on the calendar” • Reality: industrial competition led to cheaper products and more availability to the masses • So… were the factory owners really “monsters”? • LUDDITES THOUGHT SO… 1 m explanation Luddites destroying machines Marx and Engels
Common worker • Factory Act of 1833 – legislation more responsive to needs of the common man – Pulled kids out of them factories and mines – WHY WILL THIS CAUSE WOMEN TO BE PULLED OUT, AND BECOME HOME-MAKERS? • First 100 years – workers treated like machines • By 1840 – wages rose substantially • Mechanism did make clothing cheaper • Adults still worked an 11 hour day • Diets improved – more varied • Housing – remained deplorable Robert Owen
How is the Factory Act of 1833 going to help the kids, but hurt the feminist movement? Does this make the FACTORY ACT of 1833 a good thing, or a bad thing?
New Ideologies • Conservatism – Not new – Tories • Classical Liberalism – Whigs – Factory owners • Nationalism – Giuseppe Mazzini – Duties of Man • Socialism – Government MUST protect all citizens • Marxist Socialism • Romanticism
Marxism evolves into Communism • “history of society is a history of class struggles” • Bourgeois vs. Proletariat – Factory owners are the new Bourgeois – Owners driven by capitalist interest – makes them heartless – focus on profit margin – Proletariat – exploited worker – Profit – wages stolen from workers • Marxism is the evolutionary process – Factory owners will push Proletariat too far – WORKERS UNITE! – Proletariat overthrow Bourgeois – Create a classless society – everyone owns everything, and workers decide of production plan and output
How was Marx right? How was Marx wrong?
Socialism • A general concept, united by – Intense desire to help the poor – Pushed to close gap between rich and poor – Private property regulated to some degree • Henri de Saint-Simon – Saw aristocracy as “parasites” – Saw scientists, engineers, industrialists as “doers” • Charles Fourier – Envisioned socialist utopia of 1, 620 person selfsufficient community – Abolition of marriage – Free unions, based on love and sexual freedom
Robert Owen – Utopian Socialist 8 hours work • Purchased a cotton mill in Scotland ~1800 8 hours recreation • Most workers were lowest in society 8 hours rest – 500 of 2000 employees were pauper kids – Others were drunkards, thieves, weak moral fiber – Pay was in tokens – called TRUNK SYSTEM – Factory owned stores were called TRUNK SHOPS • Owen opened a store selling quality goods – Wholesale prices - Savings passed on to consumer – Alcohol under strict supervision Health, contentment prevailed Drunkenness almost unknown • Care for young Illegitimacy very rare – Founder of infant child care in Britain – Children brought up were “graceful, genial, unconstrained” • Owen’s relationship with workers remained excellent
Will Owen’s plan work?
Nationalism • United by common culture, history and language • Government should represent your nationality • Could lead to cultural superiority • Giuseppe Mazzini – Duties of Man – Formed YOUNG ITALY – To set Italy free from Austrian dominance • WHY NOW? – Post- Napoleon – he was the teacher of the value of Nationalism – Village system HAD been source of identity… had been disrupted with Enclosures
When can nationalism be a good thing? GIVE EXAMPLES – 3 FROM GROUP When can nationalism be a BAD thing? GIVE AN EXAMPLE FROM GROUP
Utilitarianism • Laws for the greatest good for the greatest number of people • Jeremy Bentham • Thought poor were poor b/c they lacked motivation to work hard • Created workshops • Very cold, impersonal, uncomfortable • National guard rounded up homeless • Theory: pain > pleasure = you’d work your way out of predicament
Romanticism • Rejection of the order of Neo-classism Beethoven’s 5 th • Filled with drama and emotion – From “STURM AND DRANG” (storm and stress) (1770 s) • William Wordsworth – wrote how ordinary things and behaviors became majestic • George Sand – a divorced woman • Brothers Grimm – German folk tales Eroica • Ludwig von Beethoven – wildly powerful emotional music • Joseph Turner & Eugene Delecroix – Nature is powerful – life is colorful, emotional and full of drama; exotic subjects
Analysis • What appears to be happening all over Europe in early 1800 s? – Provide evidence • Who seems to be gaining power? – Provide evidence • Who will be new leading nation in Europe? – Provide evidence
Liberalism • Liberalism was the new idea of the new and growing Middle Class • These men were “self made” • And, they expected to have laws protecting what they created (their factories) • LAISSEZ FAIRE • They believed the workers chose to be just workers 27
Socialism • Socialists expected governments to protect the workers • They saw factory owners treating people like machines • And thought that was unfair • And wanted government to force businesses to protect the workers 28
Liberalism vs. Socialism Describe why each was “right. ” LIBERALISM SOCIALISM • Should businesses be allowed to treat workers however they want, to maximize profits? • Should government force businesses to pay a “fair wage, ” and provide benefits? 29
History of early 19 th century, post Napoleon
Ireland • • Was a colony of Britain Life was repress life and horrible Population doubled in 1700 s – 3 million 1725 – 8 million 1780 • • • Depopulated Ireland 1841 – 8 million 1851 – 6. 5 million 1901 – 4. 5 million 2001 – 5. 5 million Family of 6 lived on a single acre Introduction of potato ensured survival Totally dependent on potato Wore out soil Led to fungus blight 1845, 1846, 1848 – – Great Potato Famine 1. 5 million died of starvation in just 10 years 1 million emigrated Created resentment
Congress of Vienna • • • • Ultimate goal: create a lasting peace Why is this needed? How will they do that? Members at this “Congress” represented the “old order” What is the “old order”? (Old Regime) Who do you think they blamed? Congress saw the rising Middle Class as dangerous – what will they do about it? War had been used to benefit a nation But now, war is feared – why? (hint: Napoleon’s wars were “total” wars) New goal: avoid war at all costs Congress created mechanisms to prevent war Reaction: laws and leaders to encourage conservative values; repress all mid. class ideas Congress of Vienna