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WORKSHOP ON USING QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN IN SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH SESSION 1 An Overview of Quasi-Experimental Research Design Speaker: Dr. Nurulwahida Hj Azid @ Aziz Senior Lecturer https: //www. researchgate. net/profile/Nurulwahida_Azid Date 27 September 2016 1
LEARNING OUTCOME Upon successful completion of the workshop, you should be able to: ü (LO 1) Define quasi- experimental research design. ü (LO 2) State the types of quasi-experimental design. ü (LO 3) Describe when to use it and how it develop
The Uniqueness of Experimental Research Experimental research is unique in two very important respects: § It is the only type of research that directly attempts to influence a particular variabel § When properly applied, it is the best type for testing hypotheses about cause–and-effect relationships
Variables l In an experimental study, researchers look at the effect(s) of at least ONE INDEPENDENT variable on one or MORE DEPENDENT variables. Independent Variable Refer to treatment variables Dependent Variable Refers to the results or outcomes of the study
The major Characteristic of Experimental Research l The major characteristic of experimental research that distinguishes it from all other types of research is that researchers MANIPULATE the independent variable.
The major Characteristic of Experimental Research They decide the nature of the treatment (i. e. , what is going to happen to the subjects of the study), l To whom it is to be applied, l To what extent l
How they Manipulate? l INDEPENDENT VARIABLES frequently manipulated in educational research include: l methods of instruction, types of assignment, learning material, rewards given to students and types of questions asked by teachers. DEPENDENT VARIABLES that are frequently studied include achievement, interest in a subject, attention span, motivation, and attitudes toward school.
Types of Designs Is random assignment used? Yes Randomized or True experiment No Is there a control group or multiple measures? Yes Quasi-experiment No Non-experiment
Control of Extraneous Variables l How do researchers minimize or eliminate threats due to subject characteristics? l l Randomization: Randomization if subjects can be randomly assigned to the various group involved in an experimental study, researchers can assume that the groups are equivalent. This is the best way to ensure that the effects of one or more possible extraneous variables have been controlled. Holding certain variables constant: Example, if a constant researchers suspects that gender might influence the outcomes of a study, she could control for it by restricting the subjects of the study to female and by excluding all males. However as the generalizability of the result of the study are correspondingly reduced.
3 TYPES OF QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 1. Non-equivalent groups pre-post test design 2. Regression discontinuity design 3. Time series design
Non-equivalent groups prepost test design l l l The Non Equivalent Groups Design is probably the most frequently used design in social research. It is structured like a pretest posttest randomized experiment, but it lacks the key feature of the randomized designs random assignment. In the Non Equivalent Groups Design , we most often use intact groups that we think are similar as the treatment and control groups.
what does the term "nonequivalent" mean? l In one sense, it just means that assignment to group was not random. l In other words, the researcher did not control the assignment to groups through the mechanism of random assignment. I will share with you the example of this types in session 2.
Regression discontinuity design l l l It can be used to assess the effectiveness of the recovery program in a school or organization. The frame design is similar to the design of pre-post test. Specialty is the method of selecting the treatment group and the group of respondents is based on the cutoff point. Treatment group P 1 01 Control Group P 2 01 X P 1= poor group of respondent to analyzed data P 2 = skilled group of respondents to analyze data X = treatment 0 = test 02 02
Distribution of respondents by the cutoff point 40 Student Score of data analysis skills 1. 16 2. 18 3. 20 4. 22 5. 23 6. 24 7. 25 8. 25 9. 28 10. 30 11. 35 12. 37 13. 39 Di 69 stribution Total Poor group of respondent to analyze data 13 Cutoff point = 40 14. 41 15. 48 16. 52 17. 58 18. 60 19. 63 20. 65 21. 68 22. 69 Skilled group of respondent to analyze data 9 Total 22
Time-Series Design l A time series design involves repeated measurements or observations over a period of time both before and after treatment. l An extensive amount of data is collected on a single group. If the group scores essentially the same on the pretest and then considerably improve on the posttests, the researcher has more confidence the treatment is causing the improvement than if one pretest and one posttest were given.
Example: Time-Series Design An example might be a teacher who gives a weekly test to her class for several weeks before giving them new textbook to use, and then monitors how they score on a number of weekly tests after they have used the text. l A diagram of the basic time-series design is as follows: l Interrupted Time-Series Design 01 02 03 04 05 X 06 07 08 09 010 Equivalent Time Series Design 01 X 02 X 0 3 X 0 4 X 0 5 X 0 6
Time-Series Design l l l The time series design permits significant control over threats to internal validity. The effects of history are not always clear-cut. History effects are minimized by the short time intervals between measures or observation. However, threats to validity may occur because of the overall length of data collection in this design. The maturation of participants may be a problem, although the researcher can estimate changes in maturation by studying them and removing them statistically in the design.
What are the steps in conducting experimental research? l Step 1: Decide if an Experiment Addresses Your Research Problem l Step 2: Form Hypotheses to Test Cause-and-Effect 2 Relationships l Step 3: 3 Select an Experimental Unit and Identify Study Participants l Step 4: 4 Select an Experimental Treatment and Introduce it
What are the steps in conducting experimental research? l Step 5: Choose a Type of Experimental Design l Step 6: Conduct the Experiment l Step 7: Organize and Analyze the Data l Step 8: Develop an Experimental Research Report
References l l l l l Bausell, R. B. (1994). Conducting meaningful experiments. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Campbell, D. T. , & Stanley, J. C. (1963). Experimental and quasi experimental designs for research. In N. L. Gage (Ed. ), Handbook on research in teaching (pp. 1 80). Chicago: Rand Mc. Nally. Chua Yan Piaw (2009). Statistik Penyelidikan: Lanjutan ujian univariat dan multivariat. Shah Alam: Mc. Graw Hill. Chua Yan Piaw. (2011). Kaedah Penyelidikan (2 nd ed. ). Shah Alam: Mc. Graw Hill. Creswell, W. J. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4 th ed. ). USA: Pearson. Fraenkel, R. J. , Wallen, E. N. , & Hyun, H. H. (2015). How to design and evaluate research in education (9 th ed. ). New York: Mc. Graw Hill. Lipsey, M. W. (1990). Design sensitivity: Statistical power for experimental research. New bury Park, CA: Sage. Neuman, L. W. , (2000). Social resarch method: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (5 th ed. ). California: Ally and Bacon. https: //www. researchgate. net/profile/Nurulwahida_Azid
End. . Session 1