# WORK AND ENERGY PRINCIPLE Work and Kinetic Energy

- Slides: 34

WORK AND ENERGY PRINCIPLE

Work and Kinetic Energy In the previous article we applied Newton’s second law to various problems of particle motion to establish the instantaneous relationship between the net force acting on a particle and the resulting acceleration of the particle. When we needed to determine the change in velocity or the corresponding displacement of the particle, we integrated the computed acceleration by using the appropriate kinematic equations.

There are two general classes of problems in which the cumulative effects of unbalanced forces acting on a particle are of interest. These cases involve (1) integration of forces with respect to the displacement of the particle and (2) integration of forces with respect to the time they are applied. We may incorporate the results of these integrations directly into the governing equations of motion so that it becomes unnecessary to solve directly for the acceleration. Integration with respect to displacement leads to the equations of work and energy.

Definition of Work Let’s now develop the quantitative meaning of “work”. The figure shows a force acting on a particle at A which moves along the path shown. The position vector measured from some convenient origin O locates the particle as it passes A and is the differential displacement associated with an infinitesimal movement from A to A'. The work done by the force during the displacement is defined as

The magnitude of this dot product is d. U=F ds cosa, where a is the angle between and where ds is the magnitude of. This expression may be interpreted as the displacement multiplied by the force component Ft=Fcosa in the direction of the displacement. Alternatively, the work is d. U may be interpreted as the force multiplied by the displacement component ds cosa in the direction of the force.

So d. U may be computed as With this definition of work, it should be noted that the component Fn=Fsina normal to the displacement does no work. Thus, the work d. U may be written as Work is positive if the working component Ft is in the direction of the displacement and negative if it is in the opposite direction. Forces which do work are termed as active forces. Constraint forces which do no work are termed as reactive forces.

Unit of Work The SI units of work are those of force (N) times displacement (m) or N∙m. This unit is given the special name joule (J), which is defined as the work done by a force of 1 N acting through a distance of 1 m in the direction of the force. Calculation of Work During a finite movement of the point of application of a force, the force does an amount of work equal to

In order to carry out this integration, it is necessary to know the relations between the force components and their respective coordinates or the relation between Ft and s. If the functional relationship is not known as a mathematical expression which can be integrated but is specified in the form of approximate or experimental data, then we can compute the work by carrying out a numerical or graphical integration as represented by the area under the curve of Ft versus s.

Examples of Work When work must be calculated, we must always begin with the definition of work , insert appropriate vector expressions for the force and the differential displacement vector , and carry out the required integration. Among the most frequently met forces will be constant forces, spring forces and weights.

Work Associated with a Constant External Force Consider the constant force applied to the body as it moves from position 1 to position 2. The work done by this force is As can be seen, the work done depends only on the coordinates of positions 1 and 2, there is no reference to the path travelled between these positions. The same work will be done whether the particle has followed path a or path b.

Work Associated with a Spring Force We consider here the common linear spring of stiffness k where the force required to stretch or compress the spring is proportional to the deformation x. We wish to determine the work done on the body by the spring force as the body undergoes an arbitrary displacement from an initial position x 1 to a final position x 2.

The force exerted by the spring on the body is. From the definition of work

If the initial position is the position of zero spring deformation so that x 1=0, then the work is negative for any final position x 2≠ 0. This is verified by recognizing that if the body begins at undeformed spring position and then moves to the right, the spring force is to the left; if the body begins at x 1=0 and moves to the left, the spring force is to the right. On the other hand, if we move from an arbitrary initial position x 1≠ 0 to the undeformed final position x 2=0, we see that the work is positive. In any movement toward the undeformed spring position, the spring force and the displacement are in the same direction.

In the general case, neither x 1 nor x 2 is zero. The magnitude of the work will be equal to the shaded trapezoidal area under the line. In calculating the work done on a body by a spring force, care must be taken to ensure that the units of k and x are consistent.

motion original position stretched position original position compressed position In the case of a block pulled by a force P, since the extension or compression of the spring by an amount x is in opposite direction to the displacement of the body, the work done by the spring will be negative. On the other hand, when a precompressed or preextended spring returns to its unstrethced length, since the spring force and the displacement will be in the same direction work will be positive.

Work Associated with Weight We assume that g is constant, that is the altitude variation is sufficiently small so that the acceleration of gravity may be considered constant. The work done by the weight W is If Dy < 0 work will be positive, if Dy > 0 work will be negative.

Work and Curvilinear Motion We now consider the work done on a particle of mass m, moving along a curved path under the action of the force , which stands for the resultant of all forces acting on the particle. The position of m is specified by the position vector , and its displacement along its path during the time dt is represented by the change in its position vector.

The work done by during a finite movement of the particle from point 1 to point 2 is where the limits specify the initial and final end points of the motion. From Newton’s second law and

Since (at = acosq). , in the relationship ads = vdv, a=at where the integration is carried out between points 1 and 2 along the curve, at which points the velocities have the magnitudes v 1 and v 2, respectively.

Principle of Work and Kinetic Energy The kinetic energy T of the particle is defined as And is the total work which must be done on the particle to bring it from a state of rest to a velocity v. Kinetic energy T is a scalar quantity with the units of N∙m or joules (J) in SI units. Kinetic energy is always positive, regardless of the direction of the velocity. Work – energy equation can be stated as

The equation states that the total work done by all forces acting on a particle as it moves from point 1 to point 2 equals the corresponding change in kinetic energy of the particle. Although T is always positive, the change DT may be positive, negative or zero. When written in this concise form, the equation tells us that the work always results in a change of kinetic energy. Alternatively, the work – energy relation may be expressed as the initial kinetic energy T 1 plus the work done U 1 -2 equals the final kinetic energy T 1, or When written in this form, the terms correspond to the natural sequence of events.

Advantages of the Work – Energy Method A major advantage of the method of work and energy is that it avoids the necessity of computing the acceleration and leads directly to the velocity changes as functions of the forces which do work. Further, the work energy equation involves only those forces which do work and thus give rise to changes in the magnitude of the velocities.

If we consider a system of two particles joined together by a connection which is frictionless and incapable of any deformation, the forces in the connection are equal and opposite, and their points of application have identical displacement components in the direction of forces. Therefore, the net work done by these internal forces is zero during any movement of the system. Thus, the equation of work – energy is applicable to the entire system, where U 1 -2 is the total or net work done on the system by forces external to it and DT is the change, T 2 – T 1, in the total kinetic energy of the system.

The total kinetic energy is the sum of the kinetic energies of both elements of the system. So, another advantage of the work – energy method is that it enables to analyze a system of particles joined without dismembering the system. Application of the work – energy method requires isolation of the particle or system under consideration. Therefore, correct drawing of the free body diagram is of vital importance in the solution of any problem.

Power The capacity of a machine is measured by the time rate at which it can do work or deliver energy. The total work or energy input is not a measure of this capacity since a motor, no matter how small, can deliver a large amount of energy if given sufficient time. Thus, thus the capacity of a machine is rated by its power, which is defined as the time rate of doing work.

When a force P will be does work an amount U, the power Power is a scalar quantity. In SI system it has the units of N∙m/s = Joule /s = Watt (W).

Potential Energy The work done on a particle must be calculated separately for each force. The work done on a particle by forces named as “conservative forces” can be determined by a potential energy function which depends only on the position of the particle. Spring forces and forces of gravitational attraction are named as conservative forces and when the work by these are calculated using the potential energy concept, they provide simplification in the analysis of many problems.

A) Gravitational Potential Energy Let’s consider the motion of a particle in close proximity to the surface of the earth, where the gravitational attraction (weight) mg is essentially constant. The gravitational potential energy Vg of the particle is defined as the work mgh done against the gravitational field to elevate a particle a distance h above some arbitrary reference plane (called a datum), where Vg is taken to be zero. Thus, the potential energy is written as Vg=mgh

This work is called potential energy because it may be converted into energy if the particle is allowed to do work on a supporting body while it returns to its lower original datum plane. In going from one level at h=h 1 to a higher level at h=h 2, the change in potential energy becomes DVg = mg (h 2 – h 1)=mg. Dh The corresponding work done by the gravitational force on the particle is –mg. Dh. Thus, the work done by the gravitational force is the negative of the change in potential energy.

B) Elastic Potential Energy The second example of potential energy occurs in the deformation of an elastic body, such as a spring. The work which is done on the spring to deform it is stored in the spring and is called the elastic potential energy Ve. This energy is recoverable in the form of work done by the spring on the body attached to its movable end during the release of the deformation of the spring. The force supported by a linear spring at any deformation x, tensile or compressive, from its undeformed position is F=kx.

Thus the elastic potential energy of the spring as the work done on it to deform it an amount x is defined as If the deformation, either tensile or compressive, of a spring increases from x 1 to x 2, during the motion, then the change in potential energy of the spring is which is positive.

Conversely, if the deformation of a spring decreases during the motion interval, then the change in potential energy of the spring becomes negative. Because the force exerted on the spring by the moving body is equal and opposite to the force F exerted by the spring on the body, it follows that the work done on the spring is the negative of the work done on the body. Therefore, we may replace the work U done by the spring on the body by –DVe, the negative of the potential energy change for the spring, provided that the spring is included in the system.

Work – Energy Equation With the elastic member included in the system, we can modify the work – energy equation to account for the potential energy terms. If Uʹ 1 -2 stands for the work of al external forces other than gravitational forces and spring forces, than we can write or where DV is the change in total potential energy. Alternatively, we may write or

For problems where the only forces are gravitational, elastic and nonworking constraint forces, the Uʹ term is zero and the equation becomes or Where E=T + V is the total mechanical energy of the particle and its attached spring. When E is constant The transfers of energy between kinetic and potential may take place as long as the total mechanical energy T + V does not change. This equation expresses “the law of conservation of dynamical energy”.

- Ads=vdv example
- Conserved mechanical energy
- Work done and kinetic energy
- Potential energy examples pictures
- Kinetic energy of spring
- Formula of potential energy
- Conservation of mechanical energy
- Spring potential energy
- Gravity and kinetic energy
- Gravitational potential energy vs kinetic energy
- Thermal energy and mass
- Potential kinetic energy
- Kinetic link principle
- Trunk kinetic lift
- Kinetic lifting principle
- Principle of work and energy for rigid body
- Work done by friction
- Section 4 review physical science
- Acceleration
- Relation between pressure and kinetic energy of gas
- Kinetic and potential energy
- Graphic organizer about kinetic energy
- Kinetic and potential energy
- Examples of kinetic energy
- Potential energy
- Kinetic energy
- Lesson 2 kinetic and potential energy
- Kinetic energy magnetic field
- What is energy in science grade 7
- Jumping frogs answer key
- Which statement best compares momentum and kinetic energy?
- Whats potential energy
- Energy in physics definition
- Work as integral of force
- Physics 03-02 potential energy and conservative forces