Women and work human rights challenges in New

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Women and work, human rights & challenges in New Zealand Dr Jackie Blue EEO

Women and work, human rights & challenges in New Zealand Dr Jackie Blue EEO Commissioner

The 1950’s Dr Rose Ryan, Heathrose 2

The 1950’s Dr Rose Ryan, Heathrose 2

 Life in 1951 for women • 24% of university students • 25% of

Life in 1951 for women • 24% of university students • 25% of women in the labour force • Average of first birth 23 years • Average number of children = 4 • 5% female MPs • Our most common occupation was clerical work Waterfront dispute union protest, Wellington 1951 Dr Rose Ryan, Heathrose 3

The 1970’s…

The 1970’s…

Life in 1971 for women • 33% of tertiary education students • 39% of

Life in 1971 for women • 33% of tertiary education students • 39% of women overall in the labour force • 4 elected members of Parliament • Our most common occupation was clerical work • Women earned 69% of men’s average hourly earnings Air hostesses model new NEC uniforms in the 1970 s Dr Rose Ryan, Heathrose 5

…and now Dr Rose Ryan, Heathrose 6

…and now Dr Rose Ryan, Heathrose 6

……………. for women • 60 % of tertiary graduates are female • 64 %

……………. for women • 60 % of tertiary graduates are female • 64 % female labour force participation rate • 31% female MPs • Average at first birth 28 years • Average number of children = 2 • 57% of professionals are women. Women still dominate in community and personal service workers, clerical and sales Dr Rose Ryan, Heathrose 7

How work has changed in 100 years TOP TEN OCCUPATIONS • • • 1906

How work has changed in 100 years TOP TEN OCCUPATIONS • • • 1906 House servant Dressmaker/tailor Tea-room/eating house keeper School teacher Draper Sick-nurse Lodging housekeeper Lodging houseservant Clerk Milliner TOTAL 64% 2006 • Sales assistant • General clerk • Personal care assistant • Primary school teacher • Receptionist • Sales representative • Commercial cleaner • Nurse (registered) • Accounts clerk • Retail manager TOTAL 30. 8% Dr Rose Ryan, Heathrose 9

What has changed for women • Our female population is increasingly diverse • We

What has changed for women • Our female population is increasingly diverse • We have increasing rates of participation in higher education • Our labour force participation rate has grown • Graduate gender pay gap divergent – 6 % at start and widens to 17% after 5 years ( MWA 2010) • Females spent an average 4 hours and 20 minutes a day on unpaid work; males did 2 ½ hours (Time Use Survey 2009/10) Dr Rose Ryan, Heathrose 10

Extrapolating out…………… 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1998 2006

Extrapolating out…………… 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1998 2006 2014 2040

State Services Commission Human Resource Capability Survey 2014 – Public Service Pay-Gender Gap Dr

State Services Commission Human Resource Capability Survey 2014 – Public Service Pay-Gender Gap Dr Jackie Blue presentation Chartered Accountants NZ July 2015 13

Aon Hewitt Remuneration Survey 2013 ( 124 NZ organisations in most industry sectors) Across

Aon Hewitt Remuneration Survey 2013 ( 124 NZ organisations in most industry sectors) Across the market women are paid less than men at the same organisational level Courtesy AON HEWITT 14

Aon Hewitt Remuneration Survey 2013 Even in professions that are dominated by women, men

Aon Hewitt Remuneration Survey 2013 Even in professions that are dominated by women, men still earn a premium Dr Jackie Blue presentation Chartered Accountants NZ July 2015 15

Aon Hewitt Remuneration Survey 2013 Dr Jackie Blue presentation Chartered Accountants NZ July 2015

Aon Hewitt Remuneration Survey 2013 Dr Jackie Blue presentation Chartered Accountants NZ July 2015 16

Pay Equity Claims • • Aged care workers Midwives Education support workers CYF social

Pay Equity Claims • • Aged care workers Midwives Education support workers CYF social workers

Progress of Pay Equity in New Zealand • 1972 - Equal Pay Act extended

Progress of Pay Equity in New Zealand • 1972 - Equal Pay Act extended pay equity coverage to the private sector. • 1977 - Human Rights Act made it unlawful to discriminate on the grounds of sex (including pregnancy), marital status + family status. • 1990 - Employment Equity Act 1990 addressed both equal employment opportunity and pay equity – Repealed 6 months after it was introduced – EEO Trust established • 1998 - Primary teachers and principals with the same job size, experience and qualifications received the same pay as secondary teachers and principals • 2004 - Pay and Employment Equity Unit established in the Department of Labour • 2009 – Unit discontinued • 2015/2016 ? ? ?

TRACKING EQUALITY AT WORK tracking-equality. hrc. co. nz Dr

TRACKING EQUALITY AT WORK tracking-equality. hrc. co. nz Dr

History • Tracking Equality at Work 2011 • Tracking Equality at work 2014 –

History • Tracking Equality at Work 2011 • Tracking Equality at work 2014 – Employment – Pay – Leadership – Discrimination

 • tracking-equality. hrc. co. nz

• tracking-equality. hrc. co. nz

Pay rates labour market 2014 - Tracking Equalities at Work http: //tracking-equality. hrc. co.

Pay rates labour market 2014 - Tracking Equalities at Work http: //tracking-equality. hrc. co. nz/ 22

Pay rates public service 2014 -Tracking Equalities at Work http: //tracking-equality. hrc. co. nz/

Pay rates public service 2014 -Tracking Equalities at Work http: //tracking-equality. hrc. co. nz/ 23

Minimum wage earners 2014 Tracking Equalities at Work http: //tracking-equality. hrc. co. nz/ 24

Minimum wage earners 2014 Tracking Equalities at Work http: //tracking-equality. hrc. co. nz/ 24

EMPLOYMENT 2011 2014 Labour Force Participation NEET 68% 11. 6% MARGINALISED 68. 6% •

EMPLOYMENT 2011 2014 Labour Force Participation NEET 68% 11. 6% MARGINALISED 68. 6% • All Females, • Pacific Women (15 -24), • MELAA+ Women (15 -24) 10. 7% • All Females, • Maori & Pacific peoples (20 s) • MELAA+ Women (20 s) Under-Employment 3. 9% • All Females, • All young people under 25 (except Asian) Unemployment 6. 4% 5. 4% • Maori & Pacific people under 25 @Dr. Jackie. Blue | Tracking Equality at Work | tracking-equality. hrc. co. nz

PAY 2011 2014 MARGINALISED Minimum Wage $13. 00 $14. 25 Young People and women

PAY 2011 2014 MARGINALISED Minimum Wage $13. 00 $14. 25 Young People and women over 25 Minimum Wage DPI Women: 1. 2 Women: 1. 1 Median Hourly Pay $20. 38 $21. 97 • All Females, • All ethnicities except European Annual Median FTE Salary (Public Service) $56, 000 $60, 000 • All Females • Maori & Pacific • All Females, • Young people under 25 • Maori & Pacific (slightly) @Dr. Jackie. Blue | Tracking Equality at Work | tracking-equality. hrc. co. nz

LEADERSHIP 2011 2014 MARGINALISED Public Sector: Boards 41. 1% 41. 7% • All Females

LEADERSHIP 2011 2014 MARGINALISED Public Sector: Boards 41. 1% 41. 7% • All Females (no ethnicity data available) Public Sector: SMT 39. 6% 42% • All Females, • Maori, Asian, Pacific peoples LEADERSHIP 2013 2014 MARGINALISED Private: NZX Boards 12. 4% 14. 4% • All Females (no ethnicity or disability data available) Private Organisations SMT 32% 19% • All Females (no ethnicity or disability data available) @Dr. Jackie. Blue | Tracking Equality at Work | tracking-equality. hrc. co. nz

DISCRIMINATION 2014 Complaints in employment by complainant 294 (mainly Women) Complaints in pre-employment by

DISCRIMINATION 2014 Complaints in employment by complainant 294 (mainly Women) Complaints in pre-employment by complainant 123 (mainly Women) Complaints in employment by grounds of discrimination 306 (mainly race & disability based) Complaints in pre-employment by grounds of discrimination 130 (mainly disability) Complaints about sexual harassment 58 (majority are Women) MARGINALISED • The Commission remains concerned that there is significant under-reporting • In some instances the Commission data is incomplete • MBIE, through the ERA, deal with employment issues that may also cover unlawful discrimination & sexual harassment. This data is not in a form that can be included in the Commission’s stats currently @Dr. Jackie. Blue | Tracking Equality at Work | tracking-equality. hrc. co. nz

Recommendations • Employment – MBIE focus on marginalised groups – Disabled people recommendation (

Recommendations • Employment – MBIE focus on marginalised groups – Disabled people recommendation ( DAP) • Pay – Government equal pay for equal value 2020 – State sector publish gender +ethnic pay gaps with plan to eliminate – Disabled people MWE recommendation (DAP) • Leadership – Government use special measures to promote under represented groups into senior leadership roles – Responsible Ministers ensure gender and ethnic diverse appointments to state sector boards – NZX strengthen gender reporting - all companies must have policy and report on implementation • Discrimination – HRC + MBIE develop action plan to encourage use of complaints mechanism – ERA collect disaggregated data regarding discrimination + sexual harassment

New Zealand’s Second www. npa. hrc. co. nz

New Zealand’s Second www. npa. hrc. co. nz

Our first NPA in 2004 • We consulted many interested groups and civil societies

Our first NPA in 2004 • We consulted many interested groups and civil societies • Produced a 444 page document with a ‘wish list’ of 177 recommendations • Essentially ignored by the Government • We knew for the 2 nd NPA we would have to do things differently

www. npa. hrc. co. nz

www. npa. hrc. co. nz

www. npa. hrc. co. nz

www. npa. hrc. co. nz

 What happens next ? 2015 (remainder) – education to civil society and officials

What happens next ? 2015 (remainder) – education to civil society and officials of key government agencies Early 2016 – Turn on the SMART actions 2016 – bring together issues roundtables between civil society and Government e. g disabled peoples issues Continue to update NPA as actions are strengthened and/or new actions/policy are added Begin monitoring, develop indicators

What can Zonta do ? Challenge the strength of actions Challenge SMART criteria of

What can Zonta do ? Challenge the strength of actions Challenge SMART criteria of actions Challenge why some UPRs were rejected Challenge gaps – UPR recs that were accepted but there are no Government actions • Keep talking about the issues that were not picked up in the UPR recs • •

 • Gender equality in pay, employment and leadership has yet to be realised

• Gender equality in pay, employment and leadership has yet to be realised – UN Women’s Empowerment Principles • • Government must lead Vulnerable groups of women Data collection crucial SDGs # 5 Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls – indicators to be globally but monitored by ? NZ Stats