- Slides: 13
Wilson’s New Freedom US History
Wilson’s Background t t Raised in South (born in VA) lawyer in NJ professor & president of Princeton planned to attack triple wall of privilege: – trusts – tariffs – high finance t believed in attacking large concentrations of power to give greater freedom to the average citizen
Key Antitrust Measures t t While TR had sought to regulate trusts Wilson saw all monopoly as bad 1 st - Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) – strengthened Sherman Antitrust Act – great for labor unions • prevented injunctions t Federal Trade Commission (FTC) – “watchdog” of regulatory laws ended unfair business practices
New Tax System t t Worked hard to lower tariffs 1913 Underwood Tariff Act – substantially lowered tariffs t set precedent of giving the State of the Union Address in person
Federal Income Tax t t 1913 16 th Amendment – graduated (Progressive) income tax – tax earnings of individuals & corporations – larger incomes taxed more
Federal Reserve System t t Decentralized banking system under fed. control Federal Reserve Act (1913) – 12 districts – regional banks that serve other banks in district – Can print paper $$ in emergencies – protect private customer’s $$ – 1923 - ~70% of nation’s banking resources part of Fed.
5 Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the triple wall of privilege? What measures did Wilson take to combat trusts? What amendment addresses income? How was the banking system reorganized and why? What amendment addresses the voting rights of women?
Women’s Suffrage t t College educated women joined movement Carrie Chapman Catt – NAWSA • National American Woman Suffrage Association – 5 tactics • painstaking org. • close ties w/ local, state, & nat’l workers • est. wide base of support • cautious lobbying • gracious ladylike behavior
Women’s Suffrage t t Lucy Burns & Alice Paul formed Nat’l Women’s Party 1920 Congress passed the 19 th Amendment – 72 yrs after Seneca Falls
Limits to Progressivism t Wilson retreated on Civil Rights while in office – opposed anti-lynching legislation – favored segregation – NAACP had supported Wilson - felt betrayed t Progressivism could only succeed if no war – WWI ended the Progressive Era as Americans turned away from domestic policy – Only the 19 th Amendment happened afterward
TR’s Square Deal Taft’s Domestic Policy Wilson’s New Freedom