- Slides: 15
Why did Ancient Egypt decline and fall? PA @ 71
Do Now • Observe the following pictures. • These are all pictures of pharaohs, but something’s different about them. • What is different about these pictures?
None of these people were Egyptian! • Shoshenq I – pharaoh from Libya (943 – 922 BCE)
Alexander the Great – “pharaoh” from Macedonia, in northern Greece (332 – 323 BCE)
Ptolemy I, or Ptolemy Soter – pharaoh from Macedonia, in northern Greece (323 -283 BCE)
Ptolemy IV, or Ptolemy Philopater – pharaoh from Macedonia, in northern Greece (221 – 205 BCE)
Octavian, later called Augustus – Roman Emperor and “pharaoh” from Rome (27 BCE-14 CE)
Trajan – Roman Emperor and “pharaoh” originally from present-day Spain (98 – 117 CE)
Why did Ancient Egypt fall? • Struggles for power between religious leaders (priests) and military leaders (pharaoh). • Weak, corrupt pharaohs wasted Egyptian riches and damaged Egypt’s reputation. • The attacks of the Sea People (1204 -1175 BCE) further weakened the Egyptian Empire.
Why did Ancient Egypt fall? • Main reason – IRON! • The rest of the world developed iron weapons (the Iron Age), but Egypt fell behind in iron production. • Weak and backwards, Egypt would be dominated by foreign armies over many centuries.
The “foreign pharaohs” • From 1000 to 30 BCE, Libyans, Nubians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Macedonian Greeks and Romans all conquered Egypt and proclaimed their ruler “pharaoh. ” • Even though they were from another country, these “foreign pharaohs” made sure they looked as Egyptian as possible – at least in stone.
Augustus (30 BCE – 14 CE) – First Emperor of Rome
Activity – the Last Pharaoh • Read the following article about Cleopatra VII, the last pharaoh of ancient Egypt. • Fill in the graphic organizer comparing her with Hatshepsut.
Hatshepsut Cleopatra VII