- Slides: 34
“Where does that comma go? ? ? ” , , There are many different ways to use a comma! , , Let’s learn them all! , , , ,
Commas Save Lives! (LOL!!!) For Example… Let’s eat Grandpa! Let’s eat, Grandpa! Ahhh!
Commas Save Lives • I love cooking my family and my pets. • I love cooking, my family, and my pets.
First of all… “What is a comma? ” , , , , Definition: Definition Generally used to separate words or groups of words so that the meaning of the sentence is clear. Apostrophe Don’t get a comma confused with an apostrophe! Apostrophes are at the top; commas are at the bottom!
Rule #1: USE COMMAS FOR ITEMS IN A SERIES Words, Phrases, and Clauses in a series are usually separated by commas to show the reader where one item in the series ends and the next begins. Words in a Series: Series In the early morning, the lake looked cold , , , , gray On the boat, we took extra clothes fishing poles and calm. and some snacks.
Phrases in a Series , , Checking his shoelaces fastening his helmet strap and , positioning his kneepads Evan prepared for the skateboarding competition. Where do the commas go? What is a phrase again? ! A group of words that does not have a S & V together
Clauses in a The lights dimmed Series , the curtain rose , and the play began. We didn’t know where we were going, how we would get there, or when we would arrive. What is a clause again? Where do the commas go? Group of words with a S & V. It can stand alone.
Use Commas to Separate 2 or More Adjectives Before a Noun , , , Welsh Corgis are stocky energetic dogs. These intelligent loyal playful pets always enjoy a challenge.
NOTE! Repeated Conjunction *If all of the items in a series are joined by and, or nor, do NOT use commas to separate them! and and or or Example I voted for Aly and Marin and Yousef in the student council election. or nor nor
STEPS: 1. Use your table groups 2. Take out a piece of paper: 1 per group. 3. Write down 1 sentence using words in a series, 1 sentence using phrases in a series, & 1 sentence using clauses in a series with commas used correctly. 4. All groups will then share aloud
Let’s Practice! Items in a Series! , Place commas where needed! 1. The delicate colorful wings of the hummingbird vibrate as many as two hundred times each second. , 2. The cool soft wind blew across the forest. , , 3. Last week I read the novel The Lucky Stone the short story Flowers for Algernon and the poem Legacy II. , , , , 4. I want to visit Thailand Nepal China and Japan. 5. I sanded the boards Jennifer , primed them and Paul painted them.
Rule # 2: Compound Sentences: Use a comma before a conjunction when it joins independent clauses in a compound sentence. FANBOYS So For Yet And Or Nor But , I enjoyed A Christmas Carol but Romeo and Juliet is still my favorite play. I enjoy plays and movies. No comma needed b/c there are not 2 independent clauses. , I enjoy going to plays and my sister likes them too. 2 Indep. Clauses & a Conjunction so we need a comma!
Rule #3: Interrupters Use commas to set off an expression that interrupts a sentence 2 commas are used with interrupters: 1 goes before the expression, and 1 goes after. What’s the interrupter? EXAMPLE: Elise born in Texas moved to Colorado before coming to Ohio. , , So where do the commas go?
Interrupters Continued… Some interrupting expressions come at the beginning or end of a sentence. In this case, only 1 comma is needed. , Born in Texas Elise moved to Colorado before coming to Ohio. , The applications were mailed three days ago by the way. Where does the comma go?
Nonessential & Essential…there’s a difference Nonessential Definition: A. K. A. Needed & Not Needed A phrase or clause that is not needed in a sentence. Doesn’t take away from the meaning. Example: This small turtle, crossing the street slowly, was in danger.
Essential Definition: NO COMMAS NEEDED! Adds info that makes the Noun or Pronoun it identifies more specific. DO NOT SET OFF AN ESSENTIAL PHRASE!!! Example: All farmers growing the new hybrid corn should have a good harvest. We need this info or else the sentence changes meaning totally! SO… no commas needed!
Let’s Practice a Few… , , 1. Leonardo Dicaprio the actor has appeared in many films. 2. The composer Mozart wrote 5 short piano pieces when he was 6. Correct! , 3. The card game canasta is descended from mah-jongg an ancient Chinese game.
Use Commas to Set off Words of Direct Address Examples: Mrs. Clarkson, this package is addressed to you. Do you know, Oliver, when the next bus is coming? I’d like to go now, Jeff.
Rule # 4: Introductory Words, Phrases, & Clauses Use a comma after certain introductory elements. Focusing on Words 1 st: Use a comma to set off a mild exclamation such as: well, oh, or why at the beginning of a sentence. Other words such as yes and no are also set off with commas! Examples: “Where should the comma go? ” , 2. Yes, I understand the problem. 1. Well I think we should ask for help.
Focusing on Introductory Phrases & Clauses Now… Use a comma after an introductory phrase or clause. If an introductory prep. phrase is long, USE A COMMA! , Example: At night in the desert the temperature falls rapidly.
If an introductory prep. phrase is short, a comma MAY or MAY NOT be used! EXAMPLES: In the morning, we’ll tour favorite sites. In the morning we’ll tour favorite sites. Either way works!!!
Commas with Verbal Phrases! Use a comma after a verbal phrase that introduces a sentence! Examples: Signaling the referee for a time out, the coach gathered her players for a pep talk. , To keep your bones strong be sure to eat foods rich in calcium. Reminder! Verbal phrases are phrases that use a verb, they include participles, gerunds, and infinitives.
Rule 5 – Dates, Locations, Addresses, Letters • Use a comma to separate the name of a city from a state or country. – We live in Boston, Massachusetts. • Use commas to separate the day of the week, day of the month, and the year. – Today is Tuesday, November 1 st, 2016.
RULE # 5: Conventional Situations (Dates, Addresses, Locations, Letters) 1. Dates & Addresses Where should the commas go in the following examples? January 7, 2010 Mike Jones 1456 Palm Lane , Lakewood California 87653
Fix any mistakes in the letter! 1113 Collins St , Fort Worth TX 76106 , September 16 2010 , Dear Aunt Sally What a great time I had at your house last week Your two dogs Buffy and Pepper certainly kept me entertained I’ve really missed taking them for walks and playing fetch When summer begins I could come visit again Anyway thank you very much for inviting me. , Sincerely ! , , James Nice Job!
Commas Continued… Rule 6. Use commas to set off “quotes” or what someone has said. EXAMPLE: "The question is, " said Alice, "whether you can make words mean so many things. "
Commas in quotes Reminders • Remember, use commas if there are no exclamation points or question marks. – “What a minute, ” said Sally, “we have a test today? !” • If the quote is dialogue and is ending the sentence, then use a period. – Thomas replied, “I don’t think you’re going to do very well. ”
Comma Confusion Rule 7. Use or do not use a comma to avoid confusion. EXAMPLE of using comma: Outside the lawn was cluttered with hundreds of broken branches. Example - Outside, the lawn was cluttered with hundreds of broken branches.
Comma Confusion Example of do not use commas • The Giant Panda eats shoots and leaves. • The Giant Panda eats, shoots, and leaves.
You are now a Conqueror of Commas!! May your Reign last a 1, 000 years!