- Slides: 25
What type of revolution is this? • Economic revolution
What type of revolution is this? • Technological revolution
What type of revolution is this? • Political revolution • Execution of King Louis XVI during the French Revolution
What type of revolution is this? • Social revolution
What type of revolution is this? • Cultural revolution • In 1966, Mao encouraged youth in China to purge the “Four Olds” – ideas, customs, culture and habits
What type of revolution is this? • Scientific revolution • Galileo’s discoveries during the enlightenment
What type of revolution is this? • Religious revolution The Reformation
Causes of the French Revolution
Louis XIV • The government, which was headed by the extravagant King Louis XIV (14 th), cared little and did almost nothing to develop the economy of France. • As a result, Paris and France lacked decent roads, canals and other means of communications and travel or infrastructure that would have helped everyone.
Questions • Question #1: Read page 192. What kind of ruler was Louis XIV, who gave him his nickname and why was he called the “Sun King”? – Absolute monarch – Extravagant, Selfish – Called himself the Sun King (he was the source of light for the nation)
• Louis XIV (14 th) ruled France for over 70 years started at the age of 7 and gave himself the nickname “The Sun King”. • Louis did little for his country and was a largely ineffective ruler who preferred to live a life of luxury and excess.
• Louis XIV (14 th) reigned until 1715 • Louis XV (15 th) reigned from 1715 until 1774 • Louis XVI (16 th) reigned from 1774 until 1793
Question • Question #2: Read page 202. Describe the problems faced by Louis XVI in France. – Inherited deficit – Poverty – Too many taxes – No understanding of middle/lower class problems – No common law – No common language
Louis XVI th (16 ) Silver Ecu of Louis XVI, struck 1785 • The French government was ineffective and did little to help the French people. • Taxes were high and plentiful, there was little infrastructure to support businesses and there wasn’t even a common law for the country.
Question • Question #3: Using the primary sources on page 204 describe two opposing views of Marie Antoinette. Why do you think they are different? – Positive: nature, generous – Negative: uneducated, only gossips
Question • Question #4: Using page 203 explain why Marie Antoinette was generally hated by the French people? – Austrian – Extravagance – Favouritism – Uneducated – Selfish
• Marie Antoinette was the Austrian bride of Louis XVI • (Louis’ XIV successor) and was a very unpopular Queen. • Marie was strong willed and opinionated, but had no education or experiences on which to base her judgments. The result was often decisions that affected government and the people of France in a negative way.
The Enlightenment • The 18 th C was a period in history where people questioned the natural world around them, their religious beliefs and how their society was organized • These new ideas were thought to be “enlightened” science and human intelligence were of the highest importance • The intellectuals who led the way with this type of questioning and thinking were sometimes referred to as “Philosophes” or philosophers.
Philosophes • Women held salons (meetings with other intellectuals) where they exchanged ideas about society, religion and government • Most philosophes were economically privileged and were able to spend time in cafes reading and discussing ideas
• French philosophers were influenced by the movements towards democracy in Britain and the United States as well as by the English intellectuals like Isaac Newton (law of gravity) and John Locke
• Voltaire spoke out against the Church and was a strong supporter of free speech • Montesquieu believed that the monarch had to work with elected parliaments Rousseau spoke out against a growing modern society
• These philosophers, as well as others, helped push forth the ideas of democracy and free speech that we live by today NOT free speech
Causes of the French Revolution • Complete the mind map of the causes of the French Revolution using the information from last class and today’s class.
Causes of the FR • Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette overspending • The 3 estates • Enlightenment ideas • High taxation • Diverse regions of France • Famine/Poverty • Marie Antoinette hated by the people • Louis XIV inefficient ruler • Influence of other revolutions • Kings not understanding ordinary needs • Absolute monarchy • Unemployment • High price of bread
In Conclusion… • Complete your ‘Hall of Fame’ activity. You will self-assess and hand this in next class.