What model to use in teaching English for

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What model to use in teaching English for International Communication? Richard Watson Todd King

What model to use in teaching English for International Communication? Richard Watson Todd King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi © 2006 Richard Watson Todd

Some statistics about English use b Approximately 1. 5 billion people speak English reasonably

Some statistics about English use b Approximately 1. 5 billion people speak English reasonably fluently b English is taught as the main foreign language in most countries b Over 1 billion people are learning English © 2006 Richard Watson Todd

Who uses English with who? b b b Tourism in Thailand: International tourist arrivals

Who uses English with who? b b b Tourism in Thailand: International tourist arrivals January-September 2001: About 50% of tourists are from East Asia Another 18% are from Asean countries 27% are from Europe, the Americas and Australasia Only a proportion of the last group are likely to be native speakers of English © 2006 Richard Watson Todd

Why have a model? b Latin was the lingua franca of the Roman Empire

Why have a model? b Latin was the lingua franca of the Roman Empire b Now Latin has evolved into e. g. Portuguese, French, Italian, Romanian b These are largely mutually unintelligible © 2006 Richard Watson Todd

Why have a model? b Will English retain its mutual intelligibility ? b Need

Why have a model? b Will English retain its mutual intelligibility ? b Need a model as a reference point for intelligibility © 2006 Richard Watson Todd

What model to use? b British English b American English b International English ©

What model to use? b British English b American English b International English © 2006 Richard Watson Todd

Aspects of language examined b Grammar b Vocabulary b Spelling b Pronunciation © 2006

Aspects of language examined b Grammar b Vocabulary b Spelling b Pronunciation © 2006 Richard Watson Todd

Grammar b British v. American English: frequency of use of past perfect b have

Grammar b British v. American English: frequency of use of past perfect b have got v. have b b International varieties: b frequent 'unusual' tense choices e. g. Indian English © 2006 Richard Watson Todd

Vocabulary b British v. American English: b tap v. faucet b bonnet v. hood

Vocabulary b British v. American English: b tap v. faucet b bonnet v. hood b pavement v. sidewalk b International varieties: b many examples of distinctive vocabulary in many international varieties © 2006 Richard Watson Todd

Spelling b British v. American English: b colour v. color b organise v. organize

Spelling b British v. American English: b colour v. color b organise v. organize b travelling v. traveling b International varieties generally follow either UK or US © 2006 Richard Watson Todd

Pronunciation b British v. American English: b oregano b Within British and American English

Pronunciation b British v. American English: b oregano b Within British and American English b e. g. How does Alan Shearer say "an away game? " b International varieties: b very noticeable differences between varieties leading to potential mutual unintelligibility © 2006 Richard Watson Todd

Models to use b Grammar: any model b Vocabulary: British English b Spelling: American

Models to use b Grammar: any model b Vocabulary: British English b Spelling: American English b Pronunciation: selection of varieties of International English b BUT differences between varieties of international English mean that most varieties should be covered for all aspects of language © 2006 Richard Watson Todd

Using International English as a model b Thai teachers or other non-native speakers (with

Using International English as a model b Thai teachers or other non-native speakers (with reasonable competence) are valid models in teaching English for International Communication b need to raise students' awareness of differences between the varieties of International English © 2006 Richard Watson Todd

Answers to the handout b b b b b . 1 Singaporean. 2 Irish.

Answers to the handout b b b b b . 1 Singaporean. 2 Irish. 3 Indian. 4 Brunei. 5 Singapore. 6 Brunei. 7 Indian. 8 Irish. 9 Indian. 10 Irish © 2006 Richard Watson Todd

Key points regarding the handout: b Only covers grammar and vocabulary. Need to also

Key points regarding the handout: b Only covers grammar and vocabulary. Need to also treat spelling, pronunciation, pragmatics, discourse etc. b There is a range of intelligibility in the sentences depending on their match with global norms © 2006 Richard Watson Todd

Key points regarding the handout: b Need to consider initial intelligibility in deciding whether

Key points regarding the handout: b Need to consider initial intelligibility in deciding whether to use a feature as a focus (e. g. no. 5( b Only covers 4 varieties. Need to cover as many varieties as students are likely to come into contact with. b Includes varieties considered to be native speaker varieties © 2006 Richard Watson Todd

Recommendations for teaching English for International Communication b The model used can be any

Recommendations for teaching English for International Communication b The model used can be any generally intelligible variety of English (no need for NS teachers( b Exposure to a wide range of pertinent varieties, especially for pronunciation, is needed © 2006 Richard Watson Todd

Recommendations for teaching English for International Communication b Efforts should be made to raise

Recommendations for teaching English for International Communication b Efforts should be made to raise students' awareness of differences between the model used and the relevant varieties of English b For practical purposes, there may be times when a British or American model is used © 2006 Richard Watson Todd