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WHAT IS THIS STATEMENT REFERRING TO?
TECHNOLOGY- RAPID FIRE • You have 2 minutes • List 15 pieces of technology that has been created in the last 50 years GO
TECHNOLOGY • Technology is the creation of tools or objects that both extend our natural abilities and alter our social environment • Marshall Mc. Luhan- technology is the extension of the human quality (wheel is the extension of the foot, computer is the extension of the brain. . ) • How many “extensions” have you used in the past 24 hours? To what extend has that technology changed the social environment.
DOES CHANGE BEGIN WITH THE INDIVIDUAL OR THE TECHNOLOGY? • It is hard to determine whether or not change begins with the individual or the technology • Some theorists believe that an invention such as a computer takes over our lives and that society simply reacts to the change – these theorists are called technological determinists • View that social change is initiated by technology and not necessarily the individual • Why do we hover around our TV? Computers? Cell phones? • Veblen(pioneered T. D. ) would argue that, although these devices were created for a purpose, they have more profound effects on our lives that we might care to admit.
TECHNOLOGY’S IMPACT: • Technology can have positive and negative impacts: • • • Over-dependence Creation of ‘mass culture’ Changes in gender roles Social isolation Addiction • Luddites: People who oppose new technologies are often called “luddites” after a secret society whose goal it was to destroy new textile machines during the early years of the Industrial Revolution
EXERCISE • Choose one of the following: television, cell phone, bank card, mp 3 players • What are its positive and negative impacts?
SOCIAL CHANGE AND THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY: SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY • Civilizations rise and fall based on their ability to adapt to technological changes • Technology contributes to the rise and fall of a society • Despite some regression, society generally improves • Technology is instrumental in societal change
SOCIAL CHANGE AND THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY: ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY • As societies interact, cultural sharing occurs. This often involves the sharing of technology which, in turn, causes social change • Technology tends to destabilize society • New technology forces society to find a way to overcome instability and create new balance
THINK, PAIR, SHARE • Do different cultures and societies always adapt successfully to new technologies?
SOCIAL CHANGE AND THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY: PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY • More mental stability in an individual means more stability in society • Technology arises out of the human need to achieve • Innovation is the result of individuals wanting to leave their mark on society
THINK, PAIR, SHARE • When would a technological change have a negative impact on an individual?
COPING WITH TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE – PART 1 Technologies can have negative side effects • Like many people around the world, Canadians have been eager to embrace new technologies (i. e. cell phone, computer, etc. ) • We often embrace new technologies without considering the consequences • Internet: instant access to enormous amounts of information, but has also allowed young children access to pornography, hate propaganda, etc.
COPING WITH TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE – PART 2 • New technologies equal new stresses for the individual - the stress of keeping up with the speed of change • Keeping up with the rate of technological change can result in cultural lag. • During technological change, a society has to adapt and is temporarily destabilized. Resistance to the tech change causes a ‘cultural lag’ where people fall behind.
CULTURAL LEG THEORY • William Ogburn • Theory describes how people deal with change • Technology is integrated into society if it achieves three phases; invention, discovery, and diffusion • Only hindered by RESISTANCE • Technology temporarily destabilizes society until it adapts
COPING WITH TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE – PART 3 People can become over-dependent on technology • Technosis (Michelle Weil & Larry Rosen) • Overblown dependency or attachment to technology – phobic/addictive type behaviours • I. e. people experience technosis when they feel “out of touch” if they don’t check their email messages or when they have their cell phone on all the time
MARSHALL MCLUHAN • Encouraged people to consider the effects of new media on the individual and the family
MCLUHAN’S 4 LAWS The introduction of a new medium or technology follows 4 laws: 1. Any medium enhances a certain process or thing • Examples: Money enhanced trade, computer enhanced information processing, telephone enhanced communication 2. The new medium tends to render obsolete another process or thing • Examples: Money made barter obsolete, computer made the typewriter obsolete, telephone and cheap communication made the personal letter obselete
MCLUHAN’S 4 LAWS 3. Any major medium retrieves some process or thing that had been previously obsolete • Examples: Money revived the spirit of conspicuous consumption, the computer revived reading and writing en masse, telephone revived person-to-person communication for people who had been separated by distance 4. Any major medium when pushed to the extreme flips into something new • Examples: Money flipped into credit cards, desktop computer flipped into the laptop computer, the telephone flipped into the cell phone
IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON THE FAMILY • After WWII, there was a mass culture in which people of all social classes in Canada could participate (i. e. radios and televisions were much more affordable) • With this mass culture and the introduction of new technologies in the home, many changes occurred, namely the way families interacted (I. e. instead of doing puzzles together, families now listened to the radio or watched television together)
IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON THE FAMILY CONTINUED… • Introduction of electricity into the family home brought with it new technologies that were supposedly meant to help women manage the housework. • However, the long-term effects of modern household technologies were elevated standards of hygiene and comfort. • Reduced physical labour did not mean less housework.
SEE BHUTAN CASE STUDY Read page 116 Answer questions 1 -3 on page 117 • What are some of the pros and cons of this change?
SEE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND THE FAMILY Read pages 119 -120 Answer 1 -4 on page 120
CHANGES IN LAND USE AND AGRICULTURE • Technology can also have an impact on culture • Agricultural practices helped transform the world • Our means of production – or the methods by which people extract a resource from their habitat and then exploit that resource to meet their needs – has a great impact on the way people live their everyday lives
CHANGES IN LAND USE AND AGRICULTURE Hunter Gatherer Horticultural Society Pastoral Society Agricultural Society Industrial Society Postindustrial Society
HUNTER-GATHERERS • All cultures emerged from a hunter-gather tradition • Until 10, 000 years ago, foraging was the only type of subsistence • Nomadic – subsist by travelling across a territory, collecting wild plants and hunting animals • Must possess extensive ecological knowledge to predict where & when food will come into season • Vast tracts of land needed since plants and animals are spread out • Can only support small populations in relation to the land used • Land was shared – no private ownership of land
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETIES • Domestication – taming of plants and animals in order to control their availability for human use • Horticulture = domestication of plants • Sedentary versus nomadic • Instead of roaming vast tracts, concentrate on a chosen area • Enough food could be produced to support a greater number of people on a much smaller area of land
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETIES CONT’D 2 types of horticulture: • Extensive – Requires a lot of land • • Slash and burn style of farming • Once the soil was depleted of nutrients, famers moved to a new plot and repeated the process while past plots were allowed to regenerate Common to tropical rain forest regions Involves cutting down trees and burning logs and underbrush Crops are then planted between the stumps in soil that has benefited from the addition of nutrient-rich ashes • Intensive – Uses less land • • Uses technologies (i. e. irrigation, fertilizers, simple ploughs) Plots could be used year after year
PASTORAL SOCIETIES • Domestication of animals is called pastoralism (i. e. sheep, cattle, horses, goats, reindeer, camels, etc. ) • Pastoralists (or herders) are nomadic people who move their animals from area to area as seasons change of as pasture vegetation becomes scarce • Nomadic, like hunter-gatherers, but get a constant supply of food and goods from their animals • Note: many horticultural societies kept animals and many pastoralists had small gardens. The difference lies in the main area of dependence.
AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES • Characterized by intensive agriculture that results in the increased frequency and yield of cultivated crops • Use of various technologies: • Irrigation technologies (i. e. flood irrigation – diverting rivers to artificial ditches to fields) • Draft plough – used to break up soil, bring nutrients to the surface of the field and get rid of weeds and residue of previous crops • Use of oxen and horses meant more land could be tilled faster
FOOD SURPLUSES & THE RISE OF CITIES • Improved methods of agriculture meant that more food was produced on farms than was actually needed by the farm families • • • Crops could support a greater number of people • Commerce grew because farmers had extra food which could be sold and traded for other types of goods • Increased leisure time and disposable income allowed some to pursue cultural interests (i. e. painting and writing) This led to larger and larger communities Fewer people were needed to produce food so community members freed to specialize in other types of work (i. e. toolmaking, jewellery production, etc. )
TH 20 FARMING IN CANADA – CENTURY TO PRESENT • Industrialization led to increased mechanization of the farming industry • Mechanization led to marked decrease in small family farms as large, corporate farms came to dominate • Animal-driven plough replaced by tractor • Farming has become highly technical
GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS (GMOS) • Canadians are now consuming foods that have been subject to genetic modification • Questions are being raised about the potential consequences of these on human health, health of plants and animals, the environment, etc.
ARTICLE Read the article on Test Tube meat • What are the pros and cons of this?
EXERCISE • GM Technology: Benefits & Risks • Pages 132 -133 • Answer questions 1 -3