What is the relationship between body and soul. • To express an understanding of ‘Monist’ and ‘Dualist’. • To explore Descartes view on Body and Soul. • To evaluate the concept of the ghost in the machine. Love Morals Intellect Hate Desire Sensing Thinking Material Identity Knowledge of objects. Do Now: 1. ) Out of the list which features belong to your body, which belong to your mind and which might belong to both…. . If you think mind and body are the same (of the same nature and intention) you are a monist. If you think that they are separate and have two different natures you are a dualist. 2. ) Are you Monist or Dualist? Explain why.
Activation: Read Descartes view on body and soul. Was Descartes monist or a dualist and why? He claimed that the body was spatial and non conscious, whilst the mind is non-spatial but conscious, with feelings, thoughts etc. which cannot be physically located. Descartes believed mind and body were separate but that they interact – the state of the body affects the mind and vice versa. What are the weaknesses of a dualist theory?
Activation 2: Watch this video what is the argument here? Think, Pair, Share: Gilbert Ryle – What does he mean? An overseas visitor asks to see the university in a town. The tour guide shows him the sports facilities, lecture rooms, accommodations and student union. The man at the end asks ‘thanks but where is the university’. Human beings have made a category mistake looking for a soul. The man has failed to see that the university is not separate from its parts. Ryle disagreed with both dualism and the concept of a soul, he said that in humans our behaviours are physical events confused with mental events. Do you agree? Read p. 107, who disagrees?
Define the following words in your own way: Monism (define yourself): 1. Idealism – All that is considered ‘real’ is in the mind. There is no physical reality only perception. E. g. that chair is not real, its only reality lies in the way people perceive it (we don’t know that it doesn’t look different to everyone). 2. Neutral Monism - mind and body are both one of the same, neither can be classed as either ‘mental’ or ‘physical’ they both work as one and together to make up the self. 3. Physicalism - A doctrine associated with logical positivism, holding that every meaningful statement, other than the necessary statements of logic and mathematics, must refer directly or indirectly to observable properties of things or events. Dualism (define yourself): • Substance Dualism: There are two types of substances, mental substances and physical substances. Physical is different from mental. • Property Dualism: There is just one kind of substance - physical - but that physical substances can have two different kinds of property. So the brain can be the mind and the brain, both can explain one another.
Read the section on personal identity (107 -108) What questions are raised about personal identity? Complete the grid with questions and potential answers.
Exam questions: • Explore ideas relating to the relationship between body and soul. (8 Marks) • Assess the relationship between mind and body (12 Marks).