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WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?
PSYCHOLOGY FACT OR FICTION?
PSYCHOLOGY FACT OR FICTION? 1. Actions speak louder than words. 2. Beauty is only skin deep. 3. Cry and you cry alone. 4. Marry in haste, repent at leisure. 5. Familiarity breeds contempt. 6. Opposites attract. 7. Misery loves company. 8. Spare the rod, spoil the child. 9. The squeaky wheel gets the grease. 10. Birds of a feather flock together. 11. Police often use psychics to help solve crimes. 12. Similarity is the best predictor of long-term relationships. 13. In general, we only use about 10% of our brain. 14. Most brain activity stops during sleep. 15. Knowledge is power.
WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? What is psychology? The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Psychology focuses on critical thinking and is scientific.
PSYCHOLOGY’S FOUR GOALS 1. 2. 3. 4. Description: tells “what” occurred Explanation: tells “why” a behavior or mental process occurred Prediction: identifies conditions under which a future behavior or mental process is likely to occur Change: applies psychological knowledge to prevent unwanted behavior or to bring about desired goals
THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY Basic Research: conducted to advance scientific knowledge Applied Research: designed to solve practical problems
The Scientific Method
THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY: RESEARCH METHODS Four key research 1. 2. 3. 4. Experimental Descriptive Correlational Biological methods:
THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY: FOUR KEY RESEARCH METHODS
THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY: FOUR KEY RESEARCH METHODS 1. Experimental Research: carefully controlled scientific procedure that manipulates variables to determine cause and effect
THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY— THE EXPERIMENT Key features of an experiment: �Independent variable (factor that is manipulated) versus dependent variable (factor that is measured) �Experimental group (receives treatment) versus control group (receives no treatment)
THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY—THE EXPERIMENT Does a hostile birth environment lengthen of labor? Only an experiment can determine cause and effect.
THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY— DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH 2. Descriptive Research: observes and records behavior without producing causal explanations
THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY—DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH Three types of descriptive research: • Naturalistic Observation (observation and recording of behavior in natural state or habitat) • Survey (assessment of a sample or population) • Case Study (in-depth study of a single participant)
THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY— CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH 3. Correlational Research: scientific study in which the researcher observes or measures (without directly manipulating) two or more variables to find relationships between them
THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY— CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH Positive Correlation: two variables move (or vary) in the same direction— either up or down
THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY— CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH Negative Correlation: two variables move (or vary) in the opposite direction—either up or down
THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY— CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH Zero Correlation: no relationship between two variables (when one variable increases, the other can increase, decrease, or stay the same)
Crime & Ice Cream Eaten 1. 4 1. 2 1 0. 8 0. 6 0. 4 0. 2 0 0 0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1 1. 2
Ice Cream Eaten & Age 1. 8 1. 6 1. 4 1. 2 1 0. 8 0. 6 0. 4 0. 2 0 0 0. 5 1 1. 5 2
Crime & Age 1. 6 1. 4 1. 2 1 0. 8 0. 6 0. 4 0. 2 0 0 0. 5 1 1. 5 2
THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY— CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH Can you see why correlation can never show cause and effect?
THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY— BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH 4. Biological Research: scientific study of the brain and other parts of the nervous system
THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY v Potential problems: v Experimenter bias: researcher influences the research results in the expected direction v Ethnocentrism: believing one's culture is typical of all cultures v Sample bias: research participants are unrepresentative of the larger population v Participant bias: research participants are influenced by the researcher or experimental conditions
PSEUDOPSYCHOLOGIES Appear to be science but not � Often because they cannot be tested according to the scientific method � OR because its not real Examples: palmistry, psychometry, psychokinesis, astrology, psychics Psychic Medium
WHY DOES PSYCHOLOGY MATTER FOR MIDWIVES?
WHY DOES PSYCHOLOGY MATTER FOR MIDWIVES? Give voice to those without one! Psychology can help describe, explain, predict, and change behaviors Learn to care for self and others (learn warning signs) Cultural considerations Connection between mind-body
WHY MIDWIVES? 1. higher rate of diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders in women 2. stresses of poverty 3. stresses of multiple roles 4. stresses of aging 5. violence against women 6. body image concerns
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