- Slides: 39
What is Poetry? Loubna A. Youssef 2011 -2012
Contents n n n n Questions and Controversies to Define Poetry Uninspiring but Informative Definitions Poetry and Poetics Definition of Poetry: Form and Purpose Poetry and Culture History of English Poetry in Arab World: Pre-Islamic Poetry and The Islamic Golden Age The Poet The Poem Definitions of Poetry by Critics Definitions of Poetry by Poets Lyrical, Dramatic, and Narrative Poetry Teaching Poetry
More Questions To answer this question, more questions need to be addressed: n What is the nature and the role of poetry? n What is the nature and the role of the poet? n What is the subject matter of poetry? n How far is poetry global or local? Or n How far should poetry be local or global?
Controversies n n n Definition: Poetry is what the poet creates: The poet has a controversial role in society Is the poet a creator? Is poetry a creative act/art like painting? How does a poet construct an intelligible text out of the randomness of experience?
More Controversies Definition of poetry: The distinction between poetry and other genres of literature, the role of poetic form: acceptance or rejection of traditional forms and structures of poetry the purpose and meaning of n traditional definitions of poetry and n distinctions between poetry and prose, given examples of poetic prose and prosaic poetry.
Uninspiring but Informative Definitions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. a genre of literature with a long history a form that has gone through numerous and drastic reinvention over time. verse that has literary merit fine and effective language that has music: rhyme, rhythm, and meter verse characterized by emotion, imagination and beauty verse that belongs to the realm of the spirit.
Poetry and Poetics is the study of n what makes poetry a distinct form, and n what distinguishes good poetry from bad— the study of the aesthetics of poetry. n In his Poetics, Aristotle classified poetry into 3 genres: the epic, tragic, and comic. Aestheticians identified 3 genres: epic, lyric and dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry.
A Definition of Poetry by looking at Form and Purpose: n n n Narrative: epic: Homer's The Odyssey Lyric: short expressions of emotions Dramatic: poetry of action and drama: Shakespeare Descriptive: Goldsmith’s “Deserted Village” and Tennyson’s “Dream of Fair Women. ”” Satiric/Didactic: Neoclassical
Form and Types of Poetry: 51 http: //www. poemofquotes. com/articles/poetry_forms. php# Ballad, Burlesque, Blank Verse, Carpe Diem, Dramatic Monologue, Elegy, Epic, Epigram, Epitaph, Epithalamium, Free Verse, Ghazal, Haiku, Idyll, Italian Sonnet, Lyric, Narrative, Ode, Pastoral, Petrarchan, Romantic, Shakespearean, etc
Form and Content Poets use particular forms, conventions, stylistic devices, and terms that suggest alternative meanings, and/or evoke different reactions that can be emotional and/or intellectual. The use of ambiguity, imagery, symbolism, irony, and other stylistic elements of poetic diction/devices allow multiple readings and interpretations of good poetry. In poetry, imagery inspires readers or listeners with new perceptions and connections that affect the mind and heart.
More on Form in Poetry Economy of language is a salient characteristic of poetry. Critics believe that poets are miserly, self-conscious and critical in using words, in considering the emotive and musical value of a term, and in the position of the term on the page. The poet seeks to appeal to readers/listeners through innovation in imagery, theme, word choice and form.
Purpose of Poetry inspires the imagination and also evokes feelings of joy, sorrow, anger, catharsis, love. Like prose, however, a poem can narrate, describe, argue, or define a certain issue or focus. Poetry surprises the reader with a moment of revelation/insight that addresses truth and beauty. Keats said: "Beauty is truth. Truth, beauty. That is all ye know on Earth and all ye need to know. ”
Are these Better Definitions? Poetry is lines that generally have music in the form of rhyme, rhythm and/or meter. Poetry is verse that evokes intense emotion and/or convey an enlightening experience for the reader/listener. Satisfactory? Unsatisfactory? Why? For the Greeks poetry is “making”.
More Uninspiring Definitions of Poetry n n “Poetry is a literary art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities. It is the creative art of using language. ” “Poetry is an imaginative awareness of experience expressed through meaning, sound, and rhythmic language choices so as to evoke an emotional response. ”
Form and Culture/Purpose n n n Some forms of poetry are specific to particular cultures and genres, that is Context can be critical to poetics and to the development of poetic genres and forms: Mu’llaqat (hung), in praise of tribe, etc Religious Poetry: Liturgical purposes Courtly Love
Form and Modern Culture n In the modern world, there is a development of new formal structures and a revival of older forms and structures. n In the global world we live in today, poets often borrow styles, techniques and forms from diverse cultures and languages.
History of English Poetry Norton Anthology of English Literature n n n Old English 650 -1066 Middle English 1066 -1500 Renaissance to Modern since 1500 n n n n The Renaissance Dramatic Poetry to 1642 The Seventeenth Century The Augustans: 1660 -1800 The Romantics: 1789 -1850 The Victorians Modernism/Postmodernism
The Renaissance in England: 1509 -1660 (the rise of Henry VIII to the throne and the Restoration) n n Early Renaissance Poetry The Elizabethans (1558 -1603) n n n n Elizabethan song Courtly Love Elizabethan verse drama Classicism Jacobean and Caroline Poetry Metaphysical Poets Cavalier Poets
Poetry in Arab World: Pre-Islamic Poetry and The Islamic Golden Age/Islamic Renaissance, dated from the 7 th to 13 th/15 th centuries, witnessed creativity of artists, engineers, scholars, poets, philosophers, geographers and traders in the Islamic world. These contributed to all fields at the time, namely sciences, industry, agriculture, trade, economics, navigation, law, literature, art, sociology, philosophy, and logic. They managed to preserve the traditions and were creative through inventions and innovations.
The Poet n n n Bard Prophet Philosopher Reformer Muse: a channel of inspiration for a poet In pre-Islamic times: bard, historian, soothsayer, propagandist
The Poem is an expression of emotion, experience, or idea in verse: rhythmic language. Archibald Mac. Leish concludes his paradoxical poem, "Ars Poetica, " with: "A poem should not mean But be. "
Views of Different Critics n n n Traditionalists argue that poetry conveys a vision that reflects an experience of pleasure or pain to arouse similar feelings. Modernists argue that a poem is an autonomous entity that may/not represent the real world. Language in this case alludes to a complex web of references. Postmodernists regard a poem as a collage of intriguing and self-contained idioms that challenge preconceived images and themes.
All but Postmodernists Like other forms of art, poetry n is meant to be moving. It is a form, and must n is a reflection and expression of what is happening in the world n is evocative n has form.
Poets Define Poetry Wordsworth “spontaneous overflow of powerful emotions recollected in tranquility. ” Dylan Thomas: "Poetry is what makes me laugh or cry or yawn, what makes my toenails twinkle, what makes me want to do this or that or nothing. " Robert Frost: “Poetry is when an emotion has found its thought and the thought has found words. ”
More Poets Define Poetry is language in orbit. Seamus Heaney Poetry is either language lit up by life or life lit up by language. Peter Porter Poetry is not a matter of feelings, it is a matter of language. It is language which creates feelings. Umberto Eco Poetry is a heightened imagistic use of language that does things to the heart and the head. Grace Nicholos Poetry is a deal of joy and pain and wonder, with a dash of the dictionary. Kahlil Gibran
More Definitions of Poetry Pure mathematics is, in its way, the poetry of logical ideas. Albert Einstein Poetry is finer and more philosophical than history; for poetry expresses the universal, and history only the particular. Aristotle I decided that it was not wisdom that enabled poets to write their poetry, but a kind of instinct or inspiration, such as you find in seers and prophets who deliver all their sublime messages without knowing in the least what they mean. Socrates
More Definitions of Poetry When power leads man toward arrogance, poetry reminds him of his limitations. When power narrows the area of man's concern, poetry reminds him of the richness and diversity of existence. When power corrupts, poetry cleanses. John F. Kennedy Poetry is the chiseled marble of language; it's a paint-spattered canvas - but the poet uses words instead of paint, and the canvas is you. Mark Flanagan
Lyric Poetry n n Personal experience Portrays the poet's own feelings, states of mind, and perceptions. The name of the genre is derived from "lyre, " which implies that it is intended to be sung. Much lyric poetry is meant for reading.
Dramatic Poetry n n n Depicts action and characters drama written in verse to be spoken or sung. Greek tragedy in verse dates to the sixth century B. C.
Narrative Poetry n n n Epics: The Iliad, Odyssey, Aeneid, Paradise Lost Depicts characters and heroic events Written in verse
Satirical Poetry Pope and Dryden: an effective vehicle an insult delivered in verse can be more powerful and memorable than that of the same insult, spoken or written in prose. The Romans had a strong tradition of satirical poetry, often written for political purposes e. g. Juvenal's satires, whose insults stung the entire spectrum of society. Pope’s Essay on Criticism
Teaching Poetry 1. 2. 3. The study of poetry should be one of exploration. How far should initial poetry study focus on form? Should form be taught as a tool or as a requirement? How does teaching poetry enhance or stifle creatively.
In “Language and Literacy: The Poetry Connection, ” Dorothy S. Strickland Michael R. Strickland explain that “When students discuss various characteristics of a form, it helps inform their own writing and familiarizes them with common terminology needed to talk about language, literature, and literacy. Familiarity with the structure and terminology of literacy facilitates students’ abilities to communicate with others about what they know. In addition, such familiarity can deepen students’ personal responses and interpretations of literature” (201).
The Temple George Herbert (1593 -1633) My words and thoughts do both express this notion, That Life hath with the sun a double motion. The first Is straight, and our diurnal friend, The other Hid, and doth obliquely bend. One life is wrapt In flesh, and tends to earth. The other winds towards Him, whose happy birth Taught me to live here so, That still one eye Should aim and shoot at that which Is on high: Quitting with daily labour all My pleasure, To gain at harvest an eternal. Treasure.
The Lamb William Blake Little Lamb who made thee Dost thou know who made thee Gave thee life & bid thee feed. By the stream & o'er the mead; Gave thee clothing of delight, Softest clothing wooly bright; Gave thee such a tender voice, Making all the vales rejoice: Little Lamb who made thee Dost thou know who made thee Little Lamb I'll tell thee, Little Lamb I’ll tell thee: He is called by thy name, For he calls himself a Lamb: He is meek and he is mild, He became a little child: I a child & thou a lamb, We are called by his name. Little Lamb God bless thee.
The Tyger Blake Tyger , Tyger. burning bright, In the forests of the night: What immortal hand or eye, Could frame thy fearful symmetry? And what shoulder, & what art, Could twist the sinews of thy heart? And when thy heart began to beat, What dread hand? & what dread feet? In what distant deeps or skies. Burnt the fire of thine eyes! On what wings dare he aspire What the hand, dare seize the fire? What the hammer? what the chain In what furnace was thy brain? What the anvil? what dread grasp, Dare its deadly terrors clasp!
Definitions: A Life-long Endeavour n n n Constant or variable? By Poet or Critic? Find the best definition of poetry. Write an extended definition of poetry.
References and Sites n http: //www. poemofquotes. com/articles/poetry_for ms. php#
r e v o g n i d l n a H ntro co Coaching Modeling