What Is Nutrition Nutrient A chemical substance in
What Is Nutrition -Nutrient: A chemical substance in food that helps maintain the body. -Nutrition: The study of how your body uses the food that you eat. -Malnutrition: is the lack of the right proportions of nutrients over an extended period
What is a Nutrient (A nutrient is a chemical substance in food that helps maintain the body. ) Some provide energy. All help build cells and tissues, regulate bodily processes such as breathing. No single food supplies all the nutrients the body needs to function. Deficiency Disease: failure to meet your nutrient needs.
v Vitamins v Minerals v Water v Protein v Carbohydrates v Fats Sugars Starches Cellulose
Carbohydrates • The body’s chief source of energy • Sugar – Simple Carbohydrates • • Glucose: Blood Fructose: Fruit Galactose: Milk Sucroce: Table sugar • Starches – Complex Carbohydrates • Fiber
Fats • Important energy source – Lipid family which includes fats and oils • Hydrogenation: adds hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fatty acids (liquid) turning them into more saturated solid fats – Crisco and margarine sticks • Cholesterol: fatlike substance found in every cell in the body – Important… found in skin tissue, produces hormones – Two types: Dietary and Blood
Fat Molecules • Fats are large molecules made up of elements Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen • Fatty acids found in animal triglycerides are saturated ones • Fatty acids found in plant triglycerides are unsaturated ones ( exception - tropical oils)
Proteins • Provide energy, encourage growth and tissue repair • Made up of small units called amino acids – 20 important to the human body: 9 your body can’t make and 11 it can • Complete protein: animal foods and soy • Incomplete proteins: plant foods – Must pair 2 foods together: beans and rice
Vitamins • Are complex organic substances – Normal growth, maintenance, and reproduction – Your body cannot produce all vitamins you can get those by eating a nutritious diet. • Fat-soluble vitamins: carried in fatty parts of foods and dissolve in fats (body stores them in fat. . . build up can be dangerous) • Water-soluble vitamins: dissolve in water (body does not store them)
Fat-Soluble Vitamins • • Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K
Water-Soluble Vitamins • Vitamin B-Complex – Thiamin (vitamin B 1) – Riboflavin (vitamin B 2) – Niacin (nicotinamide, nicotinic acid) – Vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine) – Folacin (folic acid) – Vitamin B 12 • Vitamin C
Minerals • In addition to vitamins your body also needs 15 minerals that help regulate cell function and provide structure for cells. Major minerals, in terms of amount present, include calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. In addition, your body needs smaller amounts of chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, zinc, chloride, potassium and sodium. • Amounts needed for most of these minerals is quite small and excessive amounts can be toxic to your body.
minerals • • Calcium: A mineral important for strong teeth and bones and for muscle and nerve function. The major mineral constituent of bone. – sources: milk and milk products, fish with bones that are eaten, turnip and mustard greens, tofu, almonds and broccoli. Chloride: A mineral that regulates body fluid volume, concentration and acid-base balance. Balance intertwined with that of sodium Chromium: A mineral important in regulating blood glucose. sources: brewer's yeast, whole grains and meats Copper: A mineral that is important for nerve function, bone maintenance, growth, blood formation and utilization of glucose. – sources: organ meats, sea foods, nuts and seeds Fluoride: A mineral that is important to dental and bone health. Greatly improves resistance to cavitites – sources: fluoridated water, foods cooked in or containing fluoridated water, fish with bones that are eaten, and tea Phosphorus: A mineral essential to bone formation and maintenance, energy metabolism, nerve function and acid balance. – sources: meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products and cereal products. Potassium: A mineral that is essential for nerve function, muscle contraction and maintenance of normal blood pressure. sources: fruits and vegetables.
minerals • Iodine: A mineral essential for the production of thyroid hormones. – sources: sea foods, iodized salt and foods containing iodized salt • Iron: A mineral that is an essential constituent of blood and muscle and important for the transport of oxygen. Certain groups can be at risk of having low iron levels. These include young children and early teens, women with heavy menses, women with multiple pregnancies, and people with conditions that cause internal bleeding, such as ulcers or intestinal diseases. – sources: liver, red meat, egg yolk, legumes, whole or enriched grains and dark green vegetables. • Magnesium: A mineral found mainly inside muscles, soft tissues and bone. It functions in many enzyme processes. – sources: nuts, legumes, whole grains and green vegetables • Manganese: A mineral that is important for growth, reproduction, formation of bone, and carbohydrate metabolism. – sources: whole grains, fruits, vegetables and tea. • Molybdenum: A mineral involved in many enzyme processes, nerve function and protein metabolism. – sources: milk, beans, breads and cereals.
Minerals • Selenium: A mineral associated with antioxidant properties and fat metabolism. It has been claimed to help prevent cancer and cardiovascular disease – sources: seafoods and organ meats. • Sodium: A mineral that regulates body fluid volume, concentration and acid-base – sources: table salt (sodium chloride), foods processed with table salt, milk products, eggs and seafoods • Zinc: A mineral involved in wound healing, taste sensation, growth and sexual maturation and part of many enzymes regulating metabolism – sources: meat, liver, eggs and seafood (oysters).
Water • Water is your body's most important nutrient, is involved in every bodily function, and makes up 70 - 75% of your total body weight. Water helps you to maintain body temperature, metabolize body fat, aids in digestion, lubricates and cushions organs, transports nutrients, and flushes toxins from your body. • Everyone should drink at least 64 ounces per day, and if you exercise or are overweight, even more. Your blood is approximately 90% water and is responsible for transporting nutrients and energy to muscles and for taking waste from tissues.
Nutrients that have Calories: ü Proteins ü Carbohydrates ü Fats
Definition of a Calorie: o A unit of measure for energy in food
Calories per gram: Protein 1 Gram = 4 calories Carbohydrates 1 Gram = 4 calories Fat 1 Gram = 9 calories
Variables which affect nutrient needs: 1. Age 2. Gender 3. Activity Level 4. Climate 5. Health 6. State of nutrition
Aim for Fitness 1. Aim for a healthy weight
2. Be physically active each day
Build a Healthy Base 3. Let the pyramid guide your choices 4. Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains 5. Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily. 6. Keep food safe to eat.
Choose Sensibly 7. Choose a diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol and moderate in total fat 8. Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugars 9. Choose and prepare food with less salt 10. Individuals over 21 who drink alcoholic beverages should do so in moderation
Review • What is nutrition? • What is a nutrient? • What are the 6 nutrients? – Give an example of each nutrient (food source) – Why are they important to have in your diet • Can you name 5 of the 10 dietary guidelines?