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What is morphology? Definition according to some linguists 1. Crystal 2. Fromkin, et. al 3. Aurbauch 4. Mathew 5. Deterding 6. Richard et. al
Morphology The study of the words of Language or deals with the study of how words combine to form Syntax Phonology The study the internal of structure of sentences and its interrelationship among The study of speech sound. It covers term for both phonetics and phonemics Linguistics sub field Pragmatics Form a branch of Linguistics that studies the phrases And sentences in the actual context of discourse Semantics The study of the nature of the meaning of individual word
Concept of terms Morphophonemic Lexeme What is Etymology Lexicology
Six principles in isolating and identifying morphemes Forms which have a common semantic distinctiveness and an identical phonemic form in all their occurrences constitute a single morpheme Principle 1. Example, -er added to verbs in such combinations as worker, dancer, runner/walker and flier is a morpheme. It always has the same phonetic form, and always has essentially the same meaning, that is the doer of. the action" (also called agentive).
Principle 2 • Form which have a common semantic distinctiveness but which differ in phonemic form (i. e. the phonemes or order of the phonemes) may constitute a morpheme as long as the distribution of formal differences is phonologically definable. • Example, one negative prefix has more than a single form, such as the words intolerable and impossible
• Principle 3 Forms which have a common semantic distinctiveness but which differ in phonemic forms in such a way that their distributions can not be phonologically defined constitute a single morpheme if the forms are in complementary distribution in accordance with the following re strictions: a. Occurrence in the same structural series has precedence over occurrence in different structural series in the determination of morphemic status,
b. Complementary distribution in different structural series constitutes a basis for combining possible allomorphs into one morpheme which belongs to the same distribution class as the allomorphic series in question and which itself has only one allomorph or phonologically defined allomorphs c. Immediate tactical environments have precedence over non immediate tactical environments in determining morphemic status. d. Contract in identical distributional environments ; may be treated as sub morphemic if the difference in meaning of the allomorphs reflects the distribution of this forms.
Principle 4 An overt formal difference in a structural series constitutes a mor pheme if in any member of such a series, the overt formal difference and a zero structural difference are the only significant features for distin guishing a minimal unit of phonetic semantic distinctiveness. Principle 4 "An overt formal difference : means a contrast which is indicated by differences in phonemes or in the order of phonemes. The distinction between foot /fu: t/ and feet /fi: t/ is an overt difference, since it consists in a difference of phonemes. The contrast between the singular sheep I si: p / and the plural sheep / si: p/ consists of zero and is covert.
Principle 5 Homophonous forms are identifiable as the same or different morphemes on the basis of the following conditions: a. Homophonous forms with distinctly different meanings constitute different morphemes b. Homophonous forms with related meanings constitutes a single morpheme if the meaning classes are parallel by distributional differences, but they constitute multiple morpheme if the meaning classes are not parallel by distributional differences.
Principle 6 A morpheme is isolatable if it occurs under the following conditions: a. in isolation: boy, cow, girl, jump, up, he, this, and ouch are forms identified as morphemes, because it is possible to utter all these forms in isolation. b. in multiple combination in at least one of which the unit with which it is combined occurs in isolation or in other combinations.
Types of Morphemes (1) Bound Vs Free, (2) Roots Vs Non roots, (3) Roots Vs Stems, (4) Nuclei Vs Non nuclei, (5) Nuclear Vs Peripheral, (6) Closing Vs non closing, (7) Inflectional and Derivational.
Parts of speech that accepted as inflectional morpheme 1. 2. 3. 4. Noun, Verb, Adjective, and Adverb
Characteristics of Inflectional And Derivational Morphemes Inflectional Derivational 1. Change the part of speech or the Do not change meaning or part meaning of a word e. g. , -ment added of speech, e. g. , bigger, biggest to a verb forms a noun (judge-ment) are all adjectives. re-activate means 'activate again'. 2. Are required by the syntax. 2. Syntax does not require the They typically indicate syntactic or presence of derivational morphemes. semantic relations between They typically indicate semantic different words in a sentence, relations within a word, but no e. g. , love-s bananas: -s marks the syntactic relations outside the word (compare this with #2 below) e. g. , un 3 rd person singular kind relates -un 'not' to kind, but has present form of the verb, no particular syntactic connections relating it to the 3 rd singular outside the word—note that the same subject. word can be used in he is unkind and they are unkind. 3. They are very productive. 3. they arc usually not very They typically occur with all productive—derivational morphemes members of some large class generally are selective about what of morphemes, e. g. , the plural they'll combine with e. g. , the suffix morpheme /—s/ occurs with hood occurs with just a few nouns almost all nouns. such as brother, neighbor, and knight, 4. Occur at the margin of a word, but not with most others, e. g. , friend, alter any derivational morphemes, daughter, or candle. e. g. , ration-al-iz-atinn-s : - s is inflectional, and appears at the very end of the word 1. 5. Are suffixes only (in English
MORE INFLECTIONAL AND DERIVATIONAL MORPHEMES • A. Inflectional Morphemes Inflectional morphemes usually suffixes, elements added after the base word. Some inflectional morphemes, however, are infixes. It changes within the base word rather than additions to the base, as in some English words: singsung; stand-stood, etc.
MORE INFLECTIONAL AND DERIVATIONAL MORPHEMES B. Derivational Morphemes: Noun-making derivational suffixes Verb-making derivational suffixes Adjective- making derivational suffix Adverb-making derivational suffixes
HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE OF WORDS • Illustration 1: A B Verb Agentive Nouns (verb + er) (to) write (to) drive (to) lead (to) teach (to) sing writer driver leader teacher singer
Illustration 2 Verb Suffix –able (Verb + able) = Adjective usable readable adjustable Compare comparable compare : happy (adjective) happiable (* ungrammatical) hungry (adjective) hungriable (*ungrammatical) student (noun) studentable (*ungrammatical) horseable (*ungrammatical)
Unlockable (adjective) Un lock able
Unlockable adjective verb un lock able
WORD FORMATION PROCESS 1. Coinage 2. Acronym 3. Blending 4. Clipping 5. Borrowing 6. Backformation 7. Compounding 8. Conversion 9. Derivation 10. Reduplication 11. Supplition
DICTIONARY INFORMATION • • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The Concept of Dictionary According to some experts The Main Types of Dictionary: Standard dictionaries such as the Concise Oxford. The teacher and students can work with these. Learner’s dictionaries in both one and two language varieties, e. g. English to English or English to Chinese. Picture dictionaries of simple and sophisticated types ( that include detailed pictures of computers, tennis court, cars, etc. Production dictionaries Specialized dictionaries of phrasal verbs, common mistakes, language and culture, etc. Subject specific dictionaries , e. g for medicine, engineering, etc.
Models of Dictionary • Monolingual Dictionaries Monolingual dictionary is one that consists of one language, such dictionary English, Indonesian, etc • Bilingual Dictionaries Bilingual dictionary is one that consists of two languages, such as Indonesian –English, English Indonesian, English Dutch, Dutch English, etc. • Multilingual Dictionaries Multilingual dictionary consists of more than two languages, such as, Indonesian English Arabic; English Mandarin Japan, etc.
Uses of Dictionary • • To look up a word or phrase met in listening or reading to find its meaning; to check up the spelling or pronunciation of a word or phrase. To check alternate uses and meaning of a known word met in seemingly different or unusual setting. To check the root, etymology, word class or morphology of a word. To check the use of a word or phrase by studying the examples and noting collocation. To find out about the register, connotation or association of a word or phrase. To find synonyms and compounds from the entry for a headword. To learn about the cultural significance of items looked up, the biography or a famous person or with a subject specific dictionary.
The Components of Dictionary • • Alphabetical Order Guide Words Word Division Pronunciation Definition Synonym Morphology Syntax