- Slides: 50
WHAT IS LISTENING? Generally listening is understood as hearing.
BUT LISTENING… is following and understanding the sounds / monitoring gestures as in involves perception, … hearing is with purpose.
LISTENING (AS AN ACRONYM ) L LOOK INTERESTED & FOCUSED I INVOLVE & RESPOND S STAY SERIOUS T TEST UNDERSTANDING E EVALUATE THE MASSAGE N NEUTRALIZE
TYPES OF LISTENING Active listening Selective listening Inactive listening Reflective Listening
TYPES OF LISTENING Ø Discriminative Listening: Listening for something specific but nothing else (eg. a baby crying). Ø Appreciative Listening: Looking for ways to accept and appreciate the other person through what they say. Seeking opportunity to praise. Alternatively listening to something for pleasure, such as to music. Continued…
TYPES OF LISTENING Ø Empathetic Listening: Seeking to understand what the other person is feeling. Demonstrating this empathy. Ø Comprehensive Listening: Listening to understand. Seeking meaning. Ø Critical Listening: Listening in order to evaluate, criticize or otherwise pass judgment on what someone else says. Continued…
TYPES OF LISTENING Ø Relationship Listening: Listening in order to support and develop a relationship with the other person. Ø Therapeutic Listening: Seeking to understand what the other person is feeling. Demonstrating this empathy. Ø Biased Listening: Listening through the filter of personal bias. Continued…
TYPES OF LISTENING Ø Evaluative Listening: Listening in order to evaluate, criticize or otherwise pass judgment on what someone else says. Ø Dialogic Listening: Finding meaning through conversational exchange, asking for clarity and testing understanding.
THE LISTENING PROCESS Ø Ø Ø Begins with symbols - entering receiver’s sensory world Involves process of selective perception Depends upon listener’s (a) Sensory Limitations, (b) Degree of Alertness, (c) Conditioning Ø Ø Ø Entails Nervous system & filtering by the mind Continues with search for ways to express meaning Ends by sending message
BRAIN & SPEECH (LANGUAGE, THOUGHT & CULTURE) (CLT, TLC, CTL, LCT, TLC)
Brain & Language Acquisition Device Language Acquisition Support System (LASS) (LAD) 13
BRAIN PARTS 14
SOME OF THE AREAS OF THE BRAIN INVOLVED IN LANGUAGE PROCESSING Broca's area Wernicke's area Supramarginal gyrus Angular gyrus Primary auditory cortex 15
English Language An Outline Substance (Material Aspects) Linguistic Signs Verbal Aspects • Evolutionary • Etymology • Philology • Synchronic / Descriptive • Diachronic / Historical • Sociological • Eco / Green • Ethno • Applied • Structural Content (Environmental Aspects) Form (Structural Aspects) Semiotics (Signs & Symbols) LINGUISTICS Nonlinguistic Signs Non-Verbal Aspects Arts • Music • Paintings • Photography • Ceramics • Architecture • Dance • Sculpture Gestures Kinesics • Body Language • Gestures • Facial Expressions Proxemics • Variation in Postures • Tactile • Distances 16
Linguistics Structural Linguistics Applied Linguistics Ø Semantics Ø Pragmatics Ø Forensic Linguistics Ø Stylistics ØTranstology ØLexicography ØPhraseology Ø Discourse Analysis Spoken Written ØLanguage/Speech Disorders Aphasia Dyslexia Aphonia Asemia Morphology Lexicology Syntax & Grammar Phonology Phonetics Phonemics Orthography 17
BRAIN AND LANGUAGE Laura Myers and Lyndsay O’Malley
THIS IS YOUR BRAIN Ø Ø Ø Brain cells are called neurons. You are born with at least 100 billion neurons. Dendrites (fibers) grow out of the neurons when you listen to/write about/talk about/ practice something.
THE READING BRAIN Reading can be learned only because of the brain’s plastic design, and when reading takes place, that individual brain is forever changed, both physiologically and intellectually. Maryanne Wolf
BASIC BRAIN INFORMATIO N WELCOME The Brain Learns to Read SPOKEN LANGUAGE REFLECTIO N ELL/ESL STUDENTS THE READING PROCESS MEMORY AND READING
LISTENING ACTIVE VS PASSIVE Ø Ø Show keenness & Expression Ability Ensure Good Posture & Gestures Remain Alert & Prepared for Questions Give valid reasons for criticism
COMPARISON NON-LISTENING VS ACTIVE LISTENING Non-listening Orientation toward self Ø Little use of mind (thinking) Ø Lack of etiquette Ø Inattention to principles of effect Ø No consideration of alternate messages Ø Little empathy Ø Casual attention to meaning Ø Emphasis on winning Ø Little personal involvement Ø Inattention to nonverbal communication Ø Results in conflict Ø Active Listening Ø Ø Ø Orientation toward others Significant use of mind Good application of etiquette Effective use of principles of effect Consideration of alternate messages Much empathy Intense attention to meaning Emphasis on understanding Much personal involvement Focus on nonverbal communication Results in rapport
THE TEN COMMANDMENTS OF LISTENING Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Stop talking Put talker at ease Show talker you want to listen Remove distractions Empathize with talker Be patient Hold your temper Go easy on argument and criticism Ask questions Stop talking
WHY TO BE A GOOD LISTENER? A need of social ethics, biologically & socially Ø Ø Ø To be recognized and remembered To feel valued To feel appreciated To feel respected To feel understood To feel comfortable about a want or need
NATURE OF LISTENING Sensing Filtering Remembering
VALUE OF LISTENING Ø Listening to others is an elegant art. Ø Good listening reflects courtesy and good manners. Ø Listening carefully to the instructions of superiors improve competence and performance. Ø The result of poor listening skill could be disastrous in business, employment and social relations. Ø Good listening can eliminate a number of imaginary grievances of employees. Ø Good listening skill can improve social relations and conversation. Ø Listening is a positive activity rather than a passive or negative activity.
Listening leads to learning Never failing friends It leads to …openness, encouragement & growth
ASPECTS OF LISTENING Discriminative Appreciative Contents Analytical Empathic
LISTENING IN COMMUNICATION Mode of Communication Formal Years of Training Percentage of Time Used Writing 12 years 9% Reading 6 -8 years 16 % Speaking 1 -2 years 30% Listening 0 -few hours 45%
LISTENING IN COMMUNICATION Ø Ø Of the time spent communicating each day, 45% is devoted to listening. Usually a person only remembers about 50% of what is said to them. After eight hours they forget another 1/2 to 1/3 of what was originally grasped. So that means you typically forget about 75% of what you hear.
FACTS ABOUT LISTENING Ø Ø Listening: Learned first, Used most (45%), Taught least. Speaking: Learned second, Used next most (30%), Taught next least. Reading: Learned third, Used next least (16%), Taught next most Writing: Learned fourth, Used Least (9%), Taught most.
HEARING VS LISTENING Hearing Ø Physical Ø Process Ø Natural Ø passive Listening Ø Physical & mental process Ø Active Ø Learned Process Ø A skill Listening is hard in nature and demands patient practice
RECEIVING SKILLS (COMPONENTS OF HEARING) Ø Ø Ø Hearing: The physiological process of receiving sounds / gestures. Attending: The conscious and unconscious process of focusing attention on external stimuli. Interpreting: The process of decoding the sounds & symbols. Evaluating: The process of assessing / deciding the value of the information. Remembering: The process of placing the appropriate information into short-term or long-term storage. Responding: The process of giving response/feedback to the source/receivers.
CONTENT RECEIVING SKILLS Ø Insensitive Listening or Offensive listening: A style where the listeners main intent is to select information that can later he used against the speaker. Ø Insulated Listening: A style where the listener avoids responsibility by failing to acknowledge that they have heard the information presented by the speaker. Ø Selective Listening: A style where the listener only responds to the parts of the message that directly interests him. Ø Bottom Line Listening: A style of listening where the receiver is only concerned about the facts. "Just the facts man. “ Ø Court Reporter Syndrome: A style of taking in a speakers message and recording it verbatim. Continued…
CONTENT RECEIVING SKILLS Ø Informational Listening: A style that is used when the listener is seeking out specific information. Ø Evaluative Listening: A style used to listen to information upon which a decision has to be made. Ø Critical Incidence Listening: A style used when the consequence of not listening may have dramatic effects. Ø Intimate Listening: The style that is appropriate when the speaker is communicating significant relational information being completely and wholly honest.
RELATIONAL RECEIVING SKILLS Ø Non-Listening: A style that is appropriate when the receiver has no need for the content and has minimal relationship with he sender. Ø Pseudo listening: A way of "faking it" where the receiver feels obligated to listen even though they are preoccupied unable or unwilling to at that particular time. Ø Defensive Listening: A style of listening used in situations where the receiver feels that he might be taken advantage of if he does not protect himself by listening for information directly relevant to him. Ø Appreciative Listening: A style that is appropriate in a recreational setting where the listener is participating as a way of passing time or being entertained. Continued…
RELATIONAL RECEIVING SKILLS Ø Listening with Empathy: A style that teaches an individual to enter fully into the world of the other and truly comprehend their thoughts and feelings. Ø Naively listening to customers: A style that helps build an ongoing relationship by helping the receiver understand the needs of the sender. Ø Therapeutic Cathartic Listening: A listening style used by psychological counselors to help people who are having problems dealing with life situations. Ø Therapeutic Diagnostic Listening: A listening style that is used to assess the needs of the sender.
EFFECTIVE LISTENING It refers to listening the communication completely, interpreted effectively and comprehended with full meaning intended by the message(s) / sender(s) Aspects of essential listening (a) Behaviours that support effective listening (b) Behaviors that hinder effective listening
EFFECTIVE LISTENING Behaviors that support effective listening Ø Maintaining relaxed body posture Ø Leaning slightly forward if sitting Ø Facing person squarely at eye level Ø Maintaining an open posture Ø Maintaining appropriate distance Ø Offering simple acknowledgements Ø Reflecting meaning (paraphrase) Ø Reflecting emotions Ø Using eye contact Ø Providing non-distracting environment
EFFECTIVE LISTENING Behaviors that hinder effective listening Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Acting distracted • No response Invalidating response, put downs Interrupting Criticizing Judging Diagnosing Giving advice/solutions Changing the subject Reassuring without acknowledgment
EFFECTIVE LISTENING SKILLS Active, focused Passive, laid back Pays attention Easily distracted Asks questions Asks no question Keeps open mind Has preconceptions Assimilates information Disregards information
KEYS TO EFFECTIVE LISTENING Ø Ø Ø Find areas of interest. The Poor Listener: Tunes out dry topics. The Good Listener: Seizes opportunities: "What's in it for me? " Judge content, not delivery. The Poor Listener: Tunes out if delivery is poor. The Good Listener: Judges content, skips over delivery errors. Hold your fire. The Poor Listener: Tends to enter into argument. The Good Listener: Doesn't judge until comprehension is complete. Listen for ideas. The Poor Listener: Listens for facts. The Good Listener: Listens for central theme. Be a flexible note taker. The Poor Listener: Is busy with form, misses content. The Good Listener: Adjusts to topic and organizational pattern. Work at listening. The Poor Listener: Shows no energy output, fakes attention The Good Listener: Works hard; exhibits alertness. Continued…
KEYS TO EFFECTIVE LISTENING Ø Ø Resist distractions. The Poor Listener: Is distracted easily. The Good Listener: Fights or avoids distractions; tolerates bad habits in others; knows how to concentrate. Exercise your mind. The Poor Listener: Resists difficult material; seeks light, recreational material. The Good Listener: Uses heavier material as exercise for the mind. Keep your mind open. The Poor Listener: Reacts to emotional words. The Good Listener: Interprets emotional words; does not get hung up on them. Thought is faster than speech; use it. The Poor Listener: Tends to daydream with slow speakers. The Good Listener: Challenges, anticipates, mentally summarizes, weights the evidence, listens between the lines to tone and voice.
BARRIERS TO LISTENING Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Equate With Hearing Uninteresting Topics Speaker’s Delivery External Distractions Mentally Preparing Response Listening for Facts Personal Concerns Personal Bias Language/Culture Differences Faking Attention
REMEMBER. !!! Ø Time, Empathy, & Concentration on communicator's messages are Prerequisites for understanding. Ø People want to be heard, want to be taken seriously, want to be understood. "Effective communications starts with listening. ” Ø "How often could things be remedied by a word. How often is it left unspoken. “ Ø "Silence is the training ground for the art of listening. "
e ic st d ju an o ue e d ng s ’ w to ar ts he e Le th t the i w W i t h L o v e CONCLUSION A good conversationalist is popular, a good listener even more so. Talk only if you have something to say. (Anonymous) “In addition to the ears, use senses, apply mind and heart for better comprehension and response, where patience should be your companion” (A. Mankash)
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