- Slides: 33
What is Geography?
Geography § Geography is the study of the distribution and interaction of physical and human features on the earth’s surface
Tools that Geographers Use § Geographers use many different types of tools in order to understand the earth and how people interact with the earth
Maps and Globes § The two most important tools geographers use are maps and globes. Maps are two dimensional representations of the earth’s surface and globes are three dimensional representations of the earth’s surface.
Other Tools § § § § GIS Field Work Satellite Images Photographs Databases Primary Sources Diagrams
GIS § GIS stands for Geographic Information System (Page 12) § A GIS combines information about a place from several sources such as databases, maps, and satellite images in order to solve a problem
Field Work § Field work is when a geographer travels to a location in order to study it. The geographer may interview people, take pictures, use surveying equipment, or make personal observations.
Satellite Images § Satellites are human made objects that orbit the earth. § Landsat - A series of satellites that orbit more than 100 miles above the earth. § Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite (GOES) http: //www. oso. noaa. gov/goes/ http: //landsat. gsfc. nasa. gov/about/
Photographs § Geographers can take aerial photographs from airplanes in order to better understand an area.
Databases § A database is a collection of information in a computer. The data can be anything from the different ethnic groups that live in an area to how much the average family earns in a year.
Primary Sources § Geographers often rely on direct observation in studying the earth and patterns of human activity. Primary sources can be books, articles, interviews, and pictures to name a few.
Globes and Maps
Globes § Globes are three dimensional representations of the earth
Advantages of Globes § Globes are more accurate than maps § Globes are not distorted
Disadvantages of Globes § Globes are not portable § Globes do not show detail § Globes are more expensive than maps § There are no thematic globes
Maps § Maps are two dimensional representations of the earth
Advantages of Maps § Maps are cheaper than globes § Maps show detail § Maps can show themes (thematic maps) and be used for comparing things § Maps can be put into a book called an atlas § Maps are portable
Disadvantages of Maps § Maps are distorted because the earth is not flat § Maps can distort shape, area, direction, and distance § This problem is somewhat solved by different map projections
Map Projections § Map projections are a way to draw maps in order to lessen distortion. There are different types of projections because people use maps for different reasons.
Mercator § The Mercator is used by ship navigators How do you identify it? a. It is square b. The latitude and longitude lines are at right angles c. The top and bottom of the map are heavily distorted (Greenland is ginormous!)
Polar § a. b. c. d. The Polar projection is used by airline pilots because it shows the shortest distance between two points How do you identify it? It is a circle It only shows one hemisphere The latitude lines are circles The longitude lines radiate from the center
Robinson § The Robinson projection is used to compare data. How do you identify it? a. It has curved sides b. The longitude lines curve towards the north and south pole
Different Types of Maps § Political Maps § Physical Maps § Topographic Maps § Thematic Maps § Cartograms
Political Maps § Political maps show man-made features such as cities, states, provinces, territories, or countries (Page 21)
Physical Maps § Physical maps help you see the type of landforms and bodies of water in a specific area (Page 20)
Thematic Maps § Thematic maps show specific types of information. Here are some examples of thematic maps: § Qualitative maps § Cartograms § Flow line maps
Thematic Maps § Other types of thematic maps: § Population distribution and density § Economic activity § Resource § Language § Ethnicity
Thematic Maps § Other types of thematic maps: § Climate § Precipitation § Vegetation
Small Scale Maps § Maps can be large or small scale § A small scale map shows a large area but without much detail. § A small scale is used to see relative location in a region or between regions
Large Scale Maps § A large scale map shows a small area with much more detail § A large scale is used to see relative location within a region