What is Diabetes Mellitus What is Diabetes DIABETES

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What is Diabetes Mellitus ?

What is Diabetes Mellitus ?

What is Diabetes?

What is Diabetes?

DIABETES Greek To pass water like a siphon MELLITUS Latin Sweet as honey

DIABETES Greek To pass water like a siphon MELLITUS Latin Sweet as honey

Diabetes Mellitus “Sweet Urine” It is a longstanding disease characterized by high blood sugar

Diabetes Mellitus “Sweet Urine” It is a longstanding disease characterized by high blood sugar levels. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine.

What is glucose? Glucose is an essential nutrient that provides energy for the proper

What is glucose? Glucose is an essential nutrient that provides energy for the proper functioning of the body cells. FUEL CAR needs fuel to move MAN needs glucose to work

What is glucose? G G G “Glucose in digested food is absorbed by the

What is glucose? G G G “Glucose in digested food is absorbed by the intestines into the blood and carried to all the cells in the body. Glucose needs insulin to enter the cells. ” G G

What is Insulin? Insulin is produced by the PANCREAS especially during meals. Without insulin,

What is Insulin? Insulin is produced by the PANCREAS especially during meals. Without insulin, glucose can’t enter the cells and remains in the blood.

G G G Glucose Key = Insulin G Keyhole = Insulin Receptor Cell =

G G G Glucose Key = Insulin G Keyhole = Insulin Receptor Cell = Powerplant

Keyhole = Insulin Receptor G G G CELL = POWERPLANT Key = Insulin

Keyhole = Insulin Receptor G G G CELL = POWERPLANT Key = Insulin

G G G CELL = POWERPLANT

G G G CELL = POWERPLANT

What causes it? G G Insufficient production of insulin or the inability of cells

What causes it? G G Insufficient production of insulin or the inability of cells to use insulin (insulin resistance). G G G G Type 2 DM Type 1 DM insulin (key) absent defective insulin receptor (keyhole) with insufficient insulin

Do I have Diabetes?

Do I have Diabetes?

CRITERIA FOR DIAGNOSIS OF DIABETES American Diabetes Association 8 hr Fasting Blood Sugar 2

CRITERIA FOR DIAGNOSIS OF DIABETES American Diabetes Association 8 hr Fasting Blood Sugar 2 hours after 75 g glucose (OGTT) NORMAL < 100 mg/d. L < 140 mg/d. L IMPAIRED FASTING GLYCEMIA (IFG) 100 and < 126 mg/d. L --- IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE (IGT) --- 140 and < 200 mg/d. L 126 mg/d. L 200 mg/d. L DIABETES MELLITUS Symptoms of diabetes and Random Blood Sugar of 200 mg/d. L

GLUCOSE REGULATION 200 mg/d. L 130 mg/Dl GLUCOSE NORMAL 70 -126 mg/d. L 70

GLUCOSE REGULATION 200 mg/d. L 130 mg/Dl GLUCOSE NORMAL 70 -126 mg/d. L 70 mg/d. L INSULIN

GLUCOSE REGULATION 200 mg/d. L 130 mg/Dl GLUCOSE NORMAL 70 -126 mg/d. L 70

GLUCOSE REGULATION 200 mg/d. L 130 mg/Dl GLUCOSE NORMAL 70 -126 mg/d. L 70 mg/d. L INSULIN

ETIOLOGIC CLASSIFICATION OF DIABETES MELLITUS 1. TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS • ß-cell dysfunction leading

ETIOLOGIC CLASSIFICATION OF DIABETES MELLITUS 1. TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS • ß-cell dysfunction leading to absolute insulin deficiency 2. TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS • predominant insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency or • predominant secretory defect with insulin resistance 3. OTHER SPECIFIC TYPES 4. GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS

DM TYPE 1

DM TYPE 1

DM TYPE 2

DM TYPE 2

SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES Increased thirst Excessive urination Increased appetite

SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES Increased thirst Excessive urination Increased appetite

SYMPTOMS OF ELEVATED BLOOD GLUCOSE Excessive Urination Frequent Thirst

SYMPTOMS OF ELEVATED BLOOD GLUCOSE Excessive Urination Frequent Thirst

POLYURIA -increased amount of daily urine

POLYURIA -increased amount of daily urine

SYMPTOMS OF ELEVATED BLOOD GLUCOSE POLYPHAGIA ITCHINESS

SYMPTOMS OF ELEVATED BLOOD GLUCOSE POLYPHAGIA ITCHINESS

SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES Weakness and Fatigue Weight Loss Poor Wound Healing Blurring of Vision

SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES Weakness and Fatigue Weight Loss Poor Wound Healing Blurring of Vision

WHO GETS DIABETES MELLITUS? AGE SEX/ GENDER RACE/ COLOR RELIGION

WHO GETS DIABETES MELLITUS? AGE SEX/ GENDER RACE/ COLOR RELIGION

TRIGGERING MECHANISM

TRIGGERING MECHANISM

CAUSES OF DIABETES MELLITUS HEREDITY OLD AGE OBESITY

CAUSES OF DIABETES MELLITUS HEREDITY OLD AGE OBESITY

GENETICS OF DIABETES

GENETICS OF DIABETES

PATTERN OF INHERITANCE DM TYPE 1 DM TYPE 2

PATTERN OF INHERITANCE DM TYPE 1 DM TYPE 2

CAUSES OF DIABETES MELLITUS PREGNANCY SURGERY MEDICATIONS ILLNESS

CAUSES OF DIABETES MELLITUS PREGNANCY SURGERY MEDICATIONS ILLNESS

COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES MICROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS DIABETIC RETINOAPTHY DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY DIABETIC NEUROPATHY MACROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS CORONARY

COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES MICROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS DIABETIC RETINOAPTHY DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY DIABETIC NEUROPATHY MACROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE

DIABETIC RETINOPATHY NORMAL RETINA DM RETINOPATHY

DIABETIC RETINOPATHY NORMAL RETINA DM RETINOPATHY

DIABETES AND KIDNEY DISEASE 15 % 30 -40 % PEOPLE WITH KIDNEY DISEASE 29

DIABETES AND KIDNEY DISEASE 15 % 30 -40 % PEOPLE WITH KIDNEY DISEASE 29 % PEOPLE ON PEOPLE RECEIVING KIDNEY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION

DIABETIC NEUROPATHY

DIABETIC NEUROPATHY

MACROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS

MACROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS

PEOPLE AFFLICTED WITH DIABETES MELLITUS • 25 times more prone to BLINDNESS • 17

PEOPLE AFFLICTED WITH DIABETES MELLITUS • 25 times more prone to BLINDNESS • 17 times more prone to KIDNEY DISEASE • 5 times more prone to GANGRENE • 2 times more prone to HEART DISEASE • 90 times more prone to NEUROPATHY

MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES

MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES

MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES Diet SU GA FRE R E

MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES Diet SU GA FRE R E

MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS Exercise

MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS Exercise

MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS ORAL HYPOGLYCEMIC DRUGS INSULIN

MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS ORAL HYPOGLYCEMIC DRUGS INSULIN

MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS Education

MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS Education

The Philippine College of Physicians wishes to acknowledge the following for their invaluable efforts

The Philippine College of Physicians wishes to acknowledge the following for their invaluable efforts in the preparation of this module Elaine Matawaran, MD Elaine Cunanan, MD Rosa Allyn G. Sy, MD Committee on Advocacy & Public Relations Philippine Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism