What is Biotechnology Biology 600 Biotechnology Principles and

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What is Biotechnology? Biology 600 Biotechnology: Principles and Products Delivered Live and via Videoconference

What is Biotechnology? Biology 600 Biotechnology: Principles and Products Delivered Live and via Videoconference June 1 -2, 2005 Phil Mc. Clean Department of Plant Science North Dakota State University NDSU Extension

The Latest Biotech News Monsanto halts GM wheat (May 10, 2004) • Responding to

The Latest Biotech News Monsanto halts GM wheat (May 10, 2004) • Responding to lack of market support, Monsanto halts their Roundup Ready wheat program • Will wait until sentiment changes EU Approves New Biotech Corn Product (May 19, 2004) • Syngenta allowed to market products containing Bt-11 insect resistant corn • First new biotech product approved in EU in five years • But company decides not to market the product because of user concerns NDSU Extension

The Latest Biotech News ND GMO Planting Decisions (Winter 2005) • New law enacted

The Latest Biotech News ND GMO Planting Decisions (Winter 2005) • New law enacted during 2005 legislative session • Only the ND state government has the authority to ban plantings of GMO crops • Response to laws passed at county level in other states NDSU EU Approving GMO-free Zones (May 2005) • European Union GMO regulations permit regions • to declare themselves GMO • Otherwise approved GMO products can be grown • 162 regions or provinces (=US states) have asked to be GMO free • 4500 total government units have made the request Extension

NDSU Extension

NDSU Extension

What is Biotechnology? How about some definitions General Definition The application of technology to

What is Biotechnology? How about some definitions General Definition The application of technology to improve a biological organism Detailed Definition The application of the technology to modify the biological function of an organism by adding genes from another organisms NDSU Extension

What is the Result of Biotechnology? • An organism showing a novel trait normally

What is the Result of Biotechnology? • An organism showing a novel trait normally found in the species Extended shelf-life tomato (Flavr. Savr Tomato) Herbicide resistant soybean (Roundup Ready Soybean) NDSU Extension

Biotechnology Terms You Probably Heard Transgene – the foreign gene added to a species

Biotechnology Terms You Probably Heard Transgene – the foreign gene added to a species Ex. – modified EPSP synthase gene (encodes a protein that functions even when plant treated with Roundup) Transgenic – an organism containing a transgene introduced by technological (not breeding) methods Ex. – Roundup Ready Crops NDSU Extension

Biotechnology Develops GMOs - Genetically modified organisms • GMO - an organism that expresses

Biotechnology Develops GMOs - Genetically modified organisms • GMO - an organism that expresses traits that result from the introduction of foreign DNA • Also called transgenic organism NDSU Extension

Important Terms • Breeding ü Beneficial gene added from the same species ü Gene

Important Terms • Breeding ü Beneficial gene added from the same species ü Gene delivered by mating within the species Source: USDA • Transformation ü Beneficial gene added from another species ü Gene delivered by plant genetic engineering Source: USDA NDSU Extension

Let’s Be Up Front • Breeding Biotechnology ü Breeding only exchanges genes found in

Let’s Be Up Front • Breeding Biotechnology ü Breeding only exchanges genes found in the species ü Breeding can transfer the transgene to other breeding materials ü BUT it is not the same as biotechnology • Biotechnology adds traits not available in the species ü Soybean does not have a gene to breakdown Roundup ü The gene comes from bacteria NDSU Extension

Interspecific Cross Wheat Rye X Triticale New species, but NOT biotechnology products NDSU Extension

Interspecific Cross Wheat Rye X Triticale New species, but NOT biotechnology products NDSU Extension

Mutagenesis: New Trait, No Foreign Gene ü Mutagenesis changes the sequence of a gene

Mutagenesis: New Trait, No Foreign Gene ü Mutagenesis changes the sequence of a gene ü New, useful traits can be obtained Susceptible Normal Gene Resistant Mutant Gene Mutagenesis Treatment ATTCGA ATTGGA NDSU Extension

BASF Clearfield Products Mutagenesis Crops Herbicide resistance • imidazolinones Mutant AHAS enzyme • developed

BASF Clearfield Products Mutagenesis Crops Herbicide resistance • imidazolinones Mutant AHAS enzyme • developed by mutagenesis Crops • Canola, Corn, Rice, Sunflower, Wheat In US • Not considered GMOs by USDA regulators • A Major marketing advantage • When some stacked with GMOs, the advantage lost NDSU Extension

The Crop Biotech Market Is Dominated By Five Countriesa 58. 8%/118 ma (63%/106 ma)

The Crop Biotech Market Is Dominated By Five Countriesa 58. 8%/118 ma (63%/106 ma) 6. 7%/13 ma (6. 0%/10 ma) 4. 6%/9 ma (3%/7 ma) 6. 2%/12 ma 20. 0%/40 ma (3%/7 ma) (21%/36 ma) a 2004 NDSU Top Five Countries = 96% of market 20 % increase in biotech acreage from 2003 growing season data. http: //www. isaaa. org/Press_release/Briefs 30 -2003/press/b 30_english. htm 2003 in parentheses. Extension

Crop Biotechnology Grew Worldwide In 2004 • 200 million acres (20% growth) • 8.

Crop Biotechnology Grew Worldwide In 2004 • 200 million acres (20% growth) • 8. 3 million farmers (18% growth) • 17 mega-producing countries (>120, 000 acres) • Up from 16 countries in 2003 • US, Argentina, Canada, Brazil, China, Paraguay, India South Africa, Uruguay, Australia, Romania, Mexico, Spain, Philippines, Colombia, Honduras, Germany • Germany new in 2004 NDSU Historically, biotechnology is the most rapidly adopted new agricultural technology Extension

Biotechnology Crops: Worldwide Acreage 2004 Soybean: 120. 0 million acres (17% annual growth) Corn:

Biotechnology Crops: Worldwide Acreage 2004 Soybean: 120. 0 million acres (17% annual growth) Corn: 30. 6 million acres (25% annual growth) Canola: 16. 8 million acres (12 % annual growth) NDSU Extension

Economic Effect of Bt Cotton In China ü $200/acre increase in income ü $750

Economic Effect of Bt Cotton In China ü $200/acre increase in income ü $750 million increase nationally NDSU Extension

Benefits to Hungarian Farmers Trait Total benefit Farmer realized Industry realized Bt corn (european

Benefits to Hungarian Farmers Trait Total benefit Farmer realized Industry realized Bt corn (european cornborer 3 mill 76% 24% Bt corn (Western corn rootworm) 16 mill 65% 35% Herbicide tolerant maize 14 mill 73% 27% Herbicide tolerant sugarbeet 3 mill 50% NDSU From: Demont et al. 2005. Potential impact of biotechnology in eastern Europe: transgenic maize, sugar beet, and oilseed rape in Hungary. Extension

Transgenic Crops Increasing In the USa Crop (% total acreage) Soybeanb Cornc Canolad Year

Transgenic Crops Increasing In the USa Crop (% total acreage) Soybeanb Cornc Canolad Year US ND SD 2001 68 49 80 26 25 48 61 75 - 2002 74 50 86 32 18 65 64 80 - 2003 81 74 91 40 - 75 - - - a Source: NASS Planting Reports, 2001, 2002. b 2002 US acreage = 73 million; ND acreage = 2. 6 million c 2002 US acreage = 79 million; ND acreage = 1. 2 million d 2002 US acreage = 1. 6 million; ND acreage = 1. 3 million NDSU Extension

Impact of Transgenics on Major Crop Production Ha 2004 % 2003 Soybean 86 56

Impact of Transgenics on Major Crop Production Ha 2004 % 2003 Soybean 86 56 55 Cotton 32 28 21 Canola 23 19 16 Maize 140 14 11 NDSU Transgenic versions of the big four crops are grown on 30% of their acreage Extension

Impact of Transgenics on Worldwide Crop Production Transgenic crops are grown on 5% of

Impact of Transgenics on Worldwide Crop Production Transgenic crops are grown on 5% of the 3. 7 billion acres of cultivated land in the world NDSU Extension

Roundup Ready Soybean No Yield Drag or (Advantage) North Dakota 2002 Data Locationa Arthur,

Roundup Ready Soybean No Yield Drag or (Advantage) North Dakota 2002 Data Locationa Arthur, Grandin, Northwood Wyndmere, Mooreton, Great Bend Soybean type Ave. Bu/A % Yield Conventional 46. 6 (27)b 91 % 45. 5 (26) 100 % Roundup Ready 51. 5 (78) 100 % 44. 1 (80) 97 % b# of varieties in trial in parenthesis NDSU a. Data collected by Dr. Ted Helms, NDSU Extension

Roundup Ready Soybean Reduces Expensesa Soybean type Herbicide cost (per acre) Conventional $27. 65

Roundup Ready Soybean Reduces Expensesa Soybean type Herbicide cost (per acre) Conventional $27. 65 Roundup Ready $15. 90 a. Data provided by Dr. Duane Burgland, NDSU Extension

Biotech Crops Can Be Environmentally (and Yield) Friendly Table 1. Cotton yield and insecticide

Biotech Crops Can Be Environmentally (and Yield) Friendly Table 1. Cotton yield and insecticide results from a large (157 sites) trial in India during 2001. NDSU *Means within a row are significantly different at the 5% level From: Science (2003) 299: 900 Extension

Agriculture Products On the Market Insect resistant cotton ü Bt toxin kills the cotton

Agriculture Products On the Market Insect resistant cotton ü Bt toxin kills the cotton boll worm ü toxin gene from a bacteria Source: USDA Insect resistant corn ü Bt toxin kills the European corn borer ü toxin gene from a bacteria ü Rootworm GM approved (2/26/03) Transgenic NDSU Normal Extension

Herbicide resistant crops ü current: soybean, corn, canola ü coming: sugarbeet, lettuce, strawberry, alfalfa,

Herbicide resistant crops ü current: soybean, corn, canola ü coming: sugarbeet, lettuce, strawberry, alfalfa, potato, wheat (on hold) ü resistance gene from bacteria Source: Monsanto Virus resistance ü papaya, squash, potato ü resistance gene from a virus NDSU Extension

Bacterial and Animal Biotechnology Products Source: Chr. Hansen Biotech chymosin ü enzyme used to

Bacterial and Animal Biotechnology Products Source: Chr. Hansen Biotech chymosin ü enzyme used to curdle milk products ü gene from yeast ü harvested from GE bacteria ü replaces the calf enzyme b. ST (bovine somatotropin) NDSU Source: Rent Mother Nature ü increases milk production ü gene from cow ü protein harvested from GE bacteria ü replaces cow protein originally harvested from pituitary glands of slaughtered cows Extension

Next Generation of Ag Biotech Products Golden Rice ü Increased Vitamin A content ü

Next Generation of Ag Biotech Products Golden Rice ü Increased Vitamin A content ü Transgenes from bacteria and daffidol ü Controversory: large amount needed to solve problem Sunflower ü White mold resistance ü Resistance gene from wheat Source: Minnesota Microscopy Society NDSU Extension

Turfgrass ü Herbicide resistance ü Slower growing reduced mowing = reduced pollution Bio Steel

Turfgrass ü Herbicide resistance ü Slower growing reduced mowing = reduced pollution Bio Steel ü Spider silk strongest known protein ü Protein expressed in goat milk ü Protein used to make soft-body, bullet proof vests (Nexia) NDSU Extension

Field Testing Permits Tell Us What is Coming Field Trial Data: Jan 2001 –

Field Testing Permits Tell Us What is Coming Field Trial Data: Jan 2001 – Today (n=2540) Organization Monsanto Universities Scotts 2001 -03 data; collated from: Information Systems for Biotechnology (http: //www. isb. vt. edu/) 78 (3%) 69 (3%) 63 (2%) 60 (2%) 25 (1%) NDSU Aventis Sygenta Dow USDA/ARS Prodigene # 2002 -03 trials (%) 1480 (58%) 329 (13%) 84 (3%) Extension

Where Are the GM Crops Tested in the US? ND #23 230 (3) CA

Where Are the GM Crops Tested in the US? ND #23 230 (3) CA #5 990 (12) IA #4 1, 022 (12) Data: 1993 -present: State rank, # trials, % total trials Information Systems for Biotechnology (http: //www. isb. vt. edu/) PR #3 1, 063 (13) NDSU HA #1 1, 437 (17) IL #2 1, 292 (16) Extension

Corn is the Current Main Focus Crop # 2002 -03 Trials (%) Corn 1424

Corn is the Current Main Focus Crop # 2002 -03 Trials (%) Corn 1424 (56%) Cotton 193 (8%) Rice 146 (6%) Wheat 141 (6%) Soybean 124 (5%) Alfalfa 121 (5%) Turfgrass 89 (4%) NDSU 2001 -03 data; collated from: Information Systems for Biotechnology (http: //www. isb. vt. edu/) Extension

The Traditional Traits Predominant Trait # 2002 -03 Trials (%) Insect resistance 791 (31%)

The Traditional Traits Predominant Trait # 2002 -03 Trials (%) Insect resistance 791 (31%) Herbicide resistance 736 (29%) Plant quality 400 (16%) Pathogen resistance NDSU 2001 -03 data; collated from: Information Systems for Biotechnology (http: //www. isb. vt. edu/) 171 (7%) Extension

But Some Novel Traits Are Being Tested Trait # 2002 -03 Trials (%) Yield

But Some Novel Traits Are Being Tested Trait # 2002 -03 Trials (%) Yield 105 (4%) Amino acid content 94 (4%) Sugar content 44 (2%) Oil content 42 (2%) NDSU 2001 -03 data; collated from: Information Systems for Biotechnology (http: //www. isb. vt. edu/) Extension

What’s Coming for Wheat? ? Trait % 2002 -03 Wheat Trials Roundup Ready 57%

What’s Coming for Wheat? ? Trait % 2002 -03 Wheat Trials Roundup Ready 57% Protein content 10% Yield 8% Fusarium resistance 8% NDSU 2001 -03 data; collated from: Information Systems for Biotechnology (http: //www. isb. vt. edu/) Extension

Some Ag Biotech Products Are Discontinued Why? ? ? Poor Quality • Flavr. Savr

Some Ag Biotech Products Are Discontinued Why? ? ? Poor Quality • Flavr. Savr tomatoes (Calgene) Negative Consumer Response • Tomato paste (Zeneca) Negative Corporate Response • New. Leaf (Monsanto) NDSU Universal Negative Publicity • Star. Link corn (Aventis) Extension

Environmental Applications Indicator bacteria ü contamination is detected in the environment ü microbes sensitive

Environmental Applications Indicator bacteria ü contamination is detected in the environment ü microbes sensitive to certain pollutants Bioremediation ü cleanup contaminated sites ü uses microbes designed to degrade the pollutant NDSU Extension

Land Mine Detection Without this effort, that is dangerous to our military, children are

Land Mine Detection Without this effort, that is dangerous to our military, children are maimed. NDSU Extension

Land Mine Detection How biotechnology helps • Patented transgene added to plants • When

Land Mine Detection How biotechnology helps • Patented transgene added to plants • When metal from mine is detected • Plant turns from green to red • Technology developed by Aresa Biodetection Mine detected NDSU Extension

Biotechnology and Health Product Use Insulin Diabetes Interferon Cancer Interleukin Cancer Human growth hormone

Biotechnology and Health Product Use Insulin Diabetes Interferon Cancer Interleukin Cancer Human growth hormone Dwarfism Neuroactive proteins Pain NDSU Extension

What is Biopharming? Biopharming Definition Growing transgenic crops that express pharmaceutical products Examples: Drugs

What is Biopharming? Biopharming Definition Growing transgenic crops that express pharmaceutical products Examples: Drugs Antibodies Proteins NDSU Extension

Why use this technology? Familiar Production Systems • Genes introduced into field crops (mostly

Why use this technology? Familiar Production Systems • Genes introduced into field crops (mostly corn) • New productions systems not needed • Producer can use traditional growing strategies Reduced End-Product Cost • Animal system: $1000 - $5000 per gram protein • Plant System: $1 - $10 per gram protein Source: The Roanoke Times, 2000 NDSU Extension

Edible Vaccines – A Biopharming Dream Biotech Plants Serving Human Health Needs • A

Edible Vaccines – A Biopharming Dream Biotech Plants Serving Human Health Needs • A pathogen protein gene is cloned • Gene is inserted into the DNA of plant (potato, banana, tomato) • Humans eat the plant • The body produces antibodies against pathogen protein • Human are “immunized” against the pathogen • Examples: üDiarrhea üHepatitis B üMeasles NDSU Extension

Future Health-related Biotech Products Vaccines ü Herpes ü hepatitis C ü AIDS ü malaria

Future Health-related Biotech Products Vaccines ü Herpes ü hepatitis C ü AIDS ü malaria NDSU Tooth decay ü Streptococcus mutans, the mouth bacteria ü releases lactic acid that destroys enamel ü engineered Streptococcus mutans does not release lactic acid destroys the tooth decay strain Extension

Nutritional Genomics (Nutrigenomics: a coming Biotechnology innovation) Concepts of Nutrigenomics Certain diets can cause

Nutritional Genomics (Nutrigenomics: a coming Biotechnology innovation) Concepts of Nutrigenomics Certain diets can cause severe health risks in individuals • Refined sugars, dairy products, fatty foods Certain diets enhance disease susceptibility in individual’s with a specific genetic makeup • Diabetes, lactose intolerance, high cholesterol NDSU Diets based on an individuals genetic makeup are preferred • No refined sugars, minimal dairy products or fatty foods Extension

Nutritional Genomics (Nutrigenomics) Goal of Nurtigenomics Identify specific genetic makeups • What combination of

Nutritional Genomics (Nutrigenomics) Goal of Nurtigenomics Identify specific genetic makeups • What combination of genes places a person at risk? Develop dietary recommendations • What diets are best suited for certain at-risk individuals? NDSU Extension

Top Biotechnologies In The Future Molecular Diagnostics • Treatments exist, but diagnositic tools are

Top Biotechnologies In The Future Molecular Diagnostics • Treatments exist, but diagnositic tools are lacking • Expensive, hard to implement • Cost effective diagnostic procedures needed NDSU Recombinant Vaccines • Vaccines have effectively eradicated small pox, polio, etc • Other diseases need to be addressed • More effective and low-cost vaccines are needed • Genetic engineering can solve these problems Extension

Top Biotechnologies In The Future Vaccine and drug delivery • Vaccine injections can cause

Top Biotechnologies In The Future Vaccine and drug delivery • Vaccine injections can cause serious infection • New delivery forms, such as slow release drugs, are needed Bioremediation • Water, air, and soil pollution is a problem • Plants can breakdown much of these pollutants • Plants that are safe to the environment and reduce pollutants are needed NDSU Extension

Top Biotechnologies In The Future Nutritionally Enriched Crops • Malnutrition is widespread • Malnutrition

Top Biotechnologies In The Future Nutritionally Enriched Crops • Malnutrition is widespread • Malnutrition is associated with many diseases • Modification of staple crops necessary to solve the problem NDSU Female Controlled Protection Against STDs • Incidence of sexually-transmitted disease is high • Women are most affected • Vaginal microbicides needed • Topical application best solution Extension

The Question for the Future: Should We Live A Biotech Free Lifestyle? ? Answers

The Question for the Future: Should We Live A Biotech Free Lifestyle? ? Answers depends upon your perspective on the value of the technology What will support your opinion? • Economics • Safety of products • Needs of human NDSU Extension