- Slides: 25
What Factors Encouraged European Exploration? Why did they come to Latin America?
Conquistadors • European explorers and conquerors of other lands • Mainly Spanish in Latin America • Conquered or took Latin American land to build stronger empire for European country • REMEMBER – what would conquistadors get by taking others?
1. God • Spread Christianity and covert all non. Christians
2. Gold • Main reason • Trade of spices
3. Glory • Countries wanted to be the best • Conquering others makes them more powerful
Spanish Conquests in the Americans
Christopher Columbus • Italian explorer • Working for Spain • To discover a new passage to the East Indies • To Dominican Republic • Interested in finding gold • Set up permanent settlements • Very poor treatment of the natives
Hernando Cortes • Spain • Conquered Aztecs (in Mexico) • Montezuma (stupidly) treated Cortes well • Cortes obtained gold • Used violence = smallpox * Took advantage of Aztec misunderstanding to exploit them for riches; was seen as a god. Oops.
Francisco Pizarro a. Spanish conqueror in South America mainly Andes Mtns area b. Conquered Inca Empire with force meeting little resistance c. Captured Atalualpa and put him in “jail” d. Ransom Gold / Silver e. Court case, Atalualpa loses, and is executed (strangling/hanging) f. Incas gave up and he claims their land for Spain
Why was it so easy for the conquistadors to take over land in Latin America? They had: 1. Better weapons 2. Help of various native groups 3. Disease killed most natives -Measles -Mumps -Smallpox
Spain’s Pattern of Conquest • Married native women; mestizo children • Oppressed natives • Encomienda System: natives farmed, ranched, or mined for Spanish landlords. – This system forced natives to work under brutal conditions – it was forced physical labor
Spanish Influences on Social Classes in Latin America v. The Spanish culture like language, religion, dress, food, and social rankings influenced the majority of countries in Latin America v. Life changed for the native people once Europeans imperialized or conquered, especially when it came to ranking the people into classes (you will see the European influence)
On a piece of loose leaf create the pyramid below. Using the following slides fill in your pyramid • Include the following: • Name of group • % of people in that class • Brief definition of the group
Peninsulares • . 01% of population • Men who had been born in Spain • Only ones allowed to hold government jobs • Kept loyalty of colonial leader
Creoles • 22. 8% of population • Spaniards born in Latin America • Could not hold high level political office • Could be officers in Spanish Colonial armies • Best educated of people born in L. A/least oppressed
Mestizos • 7. 3% of the population • Persons of mixed European (Spanish) and Indigenous ancestry
Mulattos • 7. 6% of population • Persons of mixed European (Spanish) and African ancestry
Africans • 6. 4% of population • Slaves
“Indians”/Indigenous • 55. 8% of population • Stood at the bottom of social ladder • Unlike enslaved Africans, Indians were of little economic value to the European (Spaniards) • As a result they were more severely oppressed than any other group
Question • Look back at your pyramid answer the following question • What social group will start the revolutionary movements in Latin America? WHY? • What other cultures similar class systems? It can be ones you have studied or a current system • Explain how they are similar or different. • What seems to be the result of having this type of system?