- Slides: 30
What are three basic teachings of Hinduism? Everything in the universe is part of the spiritual force called Brahman. The goal of existence is achieving moksha (union with Brahman). To do so, one must be free of selfish desires and obey the laws of karma and dharma.
According to Buddha, what actions would allow people to escape worldly suffering? People escape worldly suffering by understanding the Four Noble Truths, following the Eightfold Path, living a moral life, and meditating.
How did Buddhism spread to India? Name three of the lands in Asia to which Buddhism spread. Missionaries and traders helped Buddhism spread across Asia. Sri Lanka, Japan, Tibet are possible answers.
How were Hinduism and Buddhism similar? How are the two religions different? Both religions grew from the same traditions and stressed nonviolence and belief in karma, dharma, moksha, and a cycle of rebirth. Hinduism has not single founder or sacred text, as Buddhism does. Buddhism rejects priests, formal rituals, the many Hindu gods, and the caste system. Buddhism stressed enlightenment through meditation.
How did Asoka bring peace and prosperity to India? Asoka turned his back on further conquests. He rejected violence and resolved to rule by moral example. He set up stone pillars announcing laws and promising righteous government. He build hospitals, Buddhist shrines, roads, and rest houses. He planted trees for shade and dug wells.
What were some achievements of the kingdoms of the Deccan? The kingdoms had a thriving overseas trade, improved harbors, and produced rich literature.
Why is the Gupta period considered a golden age of India? The Gupta’s made great advancements in mathematics including the Arabic numeral system and the decimal system. They made medical advances; built great temples and shrined, called stupas; painted rich murals; and added to the rich literary heritage of India.
Describe the development of the caste system after Aryan times. How did the caste system provide a sense of order? The number of caste grew to accommodate new occupations, religions, and groups of people. The caste system developed rules that governed every aspect of life.
Describe the structure of the traditional Indian family. What were a woman’s responsibilities in the family? The structure of the traditional Indian family was patriarchal (father head of house). A woman’s main responsibilities were devotion to her husband raising children.
Describe the government of an Indian village. Village government was led by a headsman and a council who made decisions.
Describe the ethical code of conduct that Confucius promoted. Confucius based his ethical code of conduct on duties and responsibilities. He placed special emphasis on the duties of filial piety, honesty, hard work, concern for others, and education.
What kind of government did Legalists favor? Why did Daoist disagree with Legalist ideas on government? Legalists favored a government that passed strict laws and imposed harsh punishments. Daoist were not concerned with bringing order to human affairs. Daoists believed the best government was one that governed the least.
Why did Buddhism appeal to many people in China? Many Chinese people liked the Buddhist idea of personal salvation. They welcomed the Buddhist promise that religious devotion could end suffering and lead to eternal happiness.
Explain how each of these thinkers believed an orderly society could be achieved: (a) Confucius (b) Hanfeizi (c) Laozi Confucius taught that an orderly society was one in which people accepted their place in society and properly fulfilled their duties and responsibilities. Hanfeizi believed that strict laws and harsh enforcement of those laws brought about an orderly society. Laozi advised people to seek harmony with nature rather than an orderly society.
What were three steps Shi Huangdi took to unify China? Shi Huangdi centralized power in a strong authoritarian government, standardized weights and measures, and established a uniform currency.
How did Han emperors further economic growth in China? The Han improved canals and roads, reorganized finances, and imposed a government monopoly on salt.
How did trade contribute to the development of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations? Through trade Minoans and Mycenaeans learned ideas and technology from Egypt and Mesopotamia.
What impact did Mycenaean civilization have on later Greeks? Mycenaeans passed on writing, legends, and other cultural features to later Greeks.
What values of the ancient Greeks are found in the poems of Homer? Homer’s poems tell of honor, courage, and eloquence.
Identify two ways that geography influenced Greece. Mountains and water divided the land, the Greeks formed separate city-states. The need for fertile land pushed the Greeks to expand overseas.
How did noble landowners gain power in Greek citystates? How did the phalanx affect Greek society and government? Noble landowners were able to afford costly weapons, which were used to gain power. Since ordinary citizens formed the phalanx, class differences were reduced. The citizens who worked in a phalanx developed a sense of unity.
Describe the system of education in: (a) Sparta and (b) Athens. Spartan boys received strict military training. Athenian boys learned reading, writing, music, poetry, public speaking, and military and athletic skills.
What cultural ties united the Greek world? The Greeks shared the same myths, language, and religious beliefs.
Describe two effects of the Persian Wars. Athens became the most powerful city-state. Greek city-states formed the Delian League under Athenian leadership.
How did Pericles contribute to Athenian greatness? Pericles extended democracy to common people, encouraged extensive public building of temples and statues, increased general prosperity, and fostered the arts and philosophy.
How did the growth of Athenian power lead to war? Many Greeks come to resent Athenian domination.
Why did Plato reject democracy as a form of government? Plato rejected Athenian democracy because it had condemned Socrates.
How were Greek plays performed? What were the topics of Greek poetry and plays? Plays were performed in large outdoor theaters. Little scenery was used, but actors wore elaborate costumes and masks. A chorus accompanied the action on stage. Greek poems and plays explored moral and social issues and the relationship between people and the gods.
What was the extent of Alexander’s vast empire? Alexander’s empire stretched from Greece to northern India and included Persia, Palestine, Asia Minor, and Egypt.
How did Alexander’s conquests lead to a new civilization? Greeks left their country to settle in newly conquered lands. Eastern and western cultures blended, resulting in the new Hellenistic civilization.