Welcome to Europe Physical Features The Danube River is the 2 nd longest river in Europe and an important shipping route across the continent. It flows E to W from Germany to the Black Sea. ► The Rhine River originates (starts) in the Swiss Alps mountain range and flows NW to the North Sea. Important for shipping goods throughout continent. ► The English Channel is a narrow sea between Great Britain and France. (1994 an underground rail, the “chunnel” opened… allows below water transportation. ) ► The Mediterranean Sea is the world’s largest inland sea, located between Europe, Africa, and Asia. ► The Europe Plain is a vast, flat area stretching from France’s Atlantic coast to the Ural Mnts. In Russia. Rich farmland containing some of the largest cities (Paris, Berlin, and Moscow. ) ►
Welcome to Europe Physical Features The Alps are a magnificent mountain range in South central Europe stretching from E-France and N-Itlay through Switzerland Austria. Snowmelt from the Alps pours into many of Europe’s rivers. ► The Pyrenees mountain range extends along the border between France and Spain. Most of the P. Mnts. Are in Spain. ► The Ural Mountains in Western Russia form the boundary between Europe and Asia. ► The Iberian Peninsula in southwest Europe contains Spain and Portugal. It is separated form the rest of Europe by the Pyrenees Mountains. ► The Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe is occupied by Norway and Sweden. This mountainious region is bordered on the N by the Barents Sea, a section of the Arctic Ocean. ►
Welcome to Europe ► The Ural Mountains in Western Russia form the boundary between Europe and Asia.
Welcome to Europe ► The Mediterranean Sea is the world’s largest inland sea, located between Europe, Africa, and Asia.
Welcome to Europe ► The Iberian Peninsula in southwest Europe contains Spain and Portugal. It is separated form the rest of Europe by the Pyrenees Mountains.
Welcome to Europe ►The Pyrenees mountain range extends along the border between France and Spain. Most of the P. Mnts. Are in Spain.
Welcome to Europe ► The Alps are a magnificent mountain range in South central Europe stretching from EFrance and N-Italy through Switzerland Austria. Snowmelt from the Alps pours into many of Europe’s rivers.
Welcome to Europe ► The English Channel is a narrow sea between Great Britain and France. (1994 an underground rail, the “chunnel” opened… allows below water transportation. )
Welcome to Europe ► The Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe is occupied by Norway and Sweden. This mountainous region is bordered on the N by the Barents Sea, a section of the Arctic Ocean.
Welcome to Europe ► The Europe Plain is a vast, flat area stretching from France’s Atlantic coast to the Ural Mnts. In Russia. Rich farmland containing some of the largest cities (Paris, Berlin, and Moscow. )
Welcome to Europe ► The Danube River is the 2 nd longest river in Europe and an important shipping route across the continent. It flows E to W from Germany to the Black Sea.
Welcome to Europe ► The Rhine River originates (starts) in the Swiss Alps mountain range and flows NW to the North Sea. Important for shipping goods throughout continent.
Find Me! ► Belgium ► France ► Germany ► Italy ► Poland ► Russia ► Spain ► Ukraine ► United Kingdom
Russia Belgium United Kingdom 8 Germany Ukraine France 1 Italy Spain Poland
Europe Map Quiz ► Name, Date, Class Period in upper right hand corner. ► Europe map quiz (title) ► Number your paper 1 -20 (do not skip lines) ► NO TALKING § 1 st time= -25 pts… highest grade= 75= C § 2 nd time= 0… =F… parents get called
15 12 1 3 11 8 2 7 9 8 1 4 6 10 16 13 14 5
20 17 8 19 18 1
Location, Climate, Natural Resources Affect Where People Live August 31 -September 4
SS 6 G 10 The student will explain the impact of location, climate, natural resources, and population distribution on Europe. In your groups you will take notes on how the location, climate, and natural resources of your country affect where people live and how they trade You will have one of the following countries to become experts on: 1. 2. 3. 4. the United Kingdom Russia Germany Italy
United Kingdom Pg. 254 -259; 271 Russia Pg. 348 -355 Location Climate Farmland or Industry (and what they produce) Where People Live (most populated) Natural Resources Germany Pg. 282 -286 Italy Pg. 303 -307; 313
Location of United Kingdom Country of islands: Great Britain, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The location makes it a hub for trade with other countries. Across the English Channel from the U. K. is France, west across the Irish Sea is the Republic of Ireland; east across the North Sea is the Scandinavian Peninsula. ► London’s Heathrow Airport is the busiest airport in the world. ► Location has helped the U. K. become an international banking and insurance center. Has more foreign banking branches than any where in the world. ► It’s location on the Atlantic Ocean also helps it trade with the US. The US is the U. K. ’s number one trading partner. ►
Climate of the United Kingdom Mild climate with rainfall throughout the year. Southeastern section is protected by mountains from the wind blowing in from the Atlantic, so they are the driest areas. The rest of the country often has mild, wet weather. The highlands of Scotland are the wettest. Temperatures change with the seasons. Winters are mild and wet. Snowfalls are not very deeps and usually occur in the mountains, Summers are warmest in the south. The mild climate keeps ports free of ice and open for trade all year. ► Warm waters and winds from the Gulf of Mexico affect the climate of the U. K. The Gulf Stream moves warm water along the coast of North America. It crosses the Atlantic Ocean and warms Ireland the western coasts of England, Scotland, and Wales. The Gulf Stream makes the winters in the U. K. much miler. ► The climate is good for farming. The land is good for farming too. Much of the land is used for grazing and agriculture because of the mild climate, but less than two percent of the people earn their living as farmers. Most people live in urban areas where jobs are more available. ► ►
Natural Resources of the United Kingdom The UK has deposits of coal, petroleum, natural gas, and iron ore. These resources formed the backbone of the country’s industry; auto production, steel manufacturing, and shipbuilding. Other resources include lead, zinc, gold, tin, limestone, salt, clay, chalk, sand, and slate. Today, manufacturing is declining because these natural resources are being used up and industry is changing to cleaner forms of energy. Competition with other countries has also led to a loss of manufacturing jobs. ► Many people who once had mining and manufacturing jobs are working in service industries. In the UK, nearly 80% of the people work in service jobs such as tourism, health care, education, banking, and insurance. People must move to more urban areas to find new jobs and must work for much lower wages. ► Fishing is profitable along the shores of the UK. Fisherman catch crabs and other shellfish, cod, herring, and mackerel. Nearly 25% of the county has arable land (land suitable for growing crops). Over half of the land is used for farms. A large amount of arable land means the country can produce about 60% of its own food. Farms with sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs used the land to keep business going. ►
Location of Russia spans two continents (eastern part of Europe; northern part of Asia). It would take a week to travel Russia from West to East by train. Russia shares a border with 15 countries and two oceans. At its closest point, Russian and the United States are only about 3 miles apart across the Bering Strait. ► European Russia is almost landlocked. Most of the land is far from sea or frozen over for most of the year. ► St. Petersburg is an exception. It is a port city on the Baltic Sea. It has beautiful canals, gardens, and palaces. It is a major center for trade. A network of railroads surrounds St. Petersburg, bringing goods into the city for shipment around the world. It is home to over 5 million people. In the 1990 s, tourism began to grow. ►
Climate of Russia European Russia has 2 seasons: winter and summer. Hottest month is July and the coldest is January. The average yearly temperature is below freezing. Many areas have soil that is permanently frozen. This ground is called permafrost. Because of arctic winds, harsh winters are a part of Russian life. Winters are often dreary with gray skis. In summer, winds from the south bring warmer temperatures but not much rain. ► In Asian Russia, the climate is extreme. Siberia, the land furthest east, can have low temperatures of -40 degrees F. However, hot days in Siberia can reach over 90 degrees. ► Distance from the sea influences the climate. The European Plain is the driest, both the lands bordering the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea are exceptions. They have more rainfall and warmer temperatures. ► The climate, distance from the sea, and rugged terrain keep many of Russia’s resources from being used. ►
Natural Resources of Russia is a land of many resources. Vast forests for lumber still are found there. However on the European side of Russia, most of the deciduous and evergreen forests have been cleared away for cities and farms. Deposits of gold, aluminum ore, coal, and iron are found in the Ural Mountains, which border the European Plain. Russia is a leading producer and exporter of gold, minerals, metals, and machinery. Many factories that process iron and other metals are located in this region. ► Russia’s large size and cold climate make it difficult for Russians to use their resources. For example, oil and gas are natural resources of Russia. However, they are mostly in Siberia and in Asian Russia. That makes them difficult to reach. ►
Location of Germany is located in north-central Europe on the European Plain. Germany is about the size of South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama combined. However, five times more people live in Germany than in these three states. About 85% of people live in urban areas. The land is generally in three zones: Alps Mountains in the South, hilly to mountainous in the middle, plains in the north. ► The Rhine River (over 800 miles long) is very important for trade because many cities are located along the river. ► Germany’s location in the center of Europe makes it a crossroads of travel and trade. Germany also has an excellent highway system which encourages trade between other countries. ►
Climate of Germany ► Most of Germany has a marine climate. The Gulf Stream warms the region. ► Precipitation provides enough moisture for the land to produce good crops. ► Eastern Germany is farther from the effects of the sea. This part of the country has longer, colder winters. Summers tend to be longer, hotter, and drier.
Natural Resources of Germany ► Germany has many natural resources including: iron ore, coal, and potash. Uranium is used for nuclear fuel. Nickel, natural gas, and copper are important too. Timber is a renewable resource. Much of the forests in the north has been cut to provide land for farms, villages, an towns, but there are still large amounts of timber in the south. About one-third of the land is arable (usable for crops).
Location of Italy is a country in southern Europe. It is on a long, bootshaped peninsula. The peninsula is surrounded on three sides by the Mediterranean Sea. Italy is about twice the size of the state of Georgia, but it has seven times as many people. The largest urban areas are Rome, Naples, Milan, and Turin. About half of the people live in the most northern one-third of the country. ► Islands and mountains affect life in Italy. Mountains affect how people live and how they transport goods. The island of Sicily is located a few miles west of the tip of the boot. The island of Sardinia is a bit further away (about 200 miles west). ► Italy's location on the Mediterranean Sea affects trade with other countries. Trade with Africa, Asia, and Europe is benefited by this fact. Excellent highways, bridges, and tunnels connect Italy with their neighbors to the north. ►
Climate of Italy ► Most of Italy has a Mediterranean climate. The Mediterranean Sea keeps the temperature comfortable for most of the year. Summer skies are generally clear, and rain is rare in summer. Dry summers are on characteristic of the climate. Winters are usually cloudy and rainy. The Alps block cold air moving from the north. ► Northern Italy has enough rain for growing crops. Southern Italy is much drier. It only gets about half as much rain.
Natural Resources of Italy has few mineral resources. Natural gas is the most valuable mineral resource in Italy. Marble and granite are available. These are used in the construction of buildings and artwork. Coal, mercury, zinc, and potash are other minerals found in Italy. ► Arable land is important. Grapes and olives are important in wine making and olive oil making. ► The sea is an important resource too. The long coastline allows more than 800 ports for fishing boats. About 50, 000 Italians make their livings as fishermen. Anchovies and sardines are two fish important to the economy. Italian fishermen also gather sponges and coral. ►
nd 2 ► ► Russia Memorie Markus Ryan Angel period groups United Kingdom ► Kharisma ► Hannah ► CJ ► ► ► Russia Destiny Ryan N. Roderick Germany Austin Rusbel Laniquia United Kingdom ► Isaiah ► Linda ► Brooke ► ► ► Italy Jeremy Payton Sierra Germany Kevin Kylie Erykah
rd 3 ► ► ► Russia Selena Cha’Koria Sydney period groups United Kingdom ► Amber ► Noah ► Javarus ► ► ► ► Russia Triston Cody R India Germany Nakiera Cody Janecia Ricardo United Kingdom ► Jacob ► Hi’Keria ► Cameron ► ► ► Italy William La. Varus Shyam Italy Jiorgia Jotavious Bryson
th 4 period groups
Languages and Religions
Diversity of Languages ► Europe is a continent of diverse languages. Some are in the same language family, so people from one country can often understand the language of people from another country. Many European are bilingual (speak 2 language) or multilingual (speak several languages). The native languages in Europe belong to the Indo-European language family. Branches of the Indo-European family include the Germanic languages, Romance languages, and Slavic languages.
What Language Do You Speak ► Germanic: German and English is spoken in more parts of the world than any other language. ► Romance: French and Italian. These languages are based on Latin, the language of the Ancient Romans. ► Slavic: Russian is an example of a Slavic Language.
What’s Your Religion ► Judaism: religion and culture of the Jewish people and the first recorded faith to worship one God (monotheism). The beliefs and history of Judaism make up the historical foundation of many other religions, including Christianity and Islam. ► There have been small populations of Jews in Europe for centuries. Today, most European Jews live in France, the United Kingdom, Russia, an other countries that were formerly part of the Soviet Union.
What’s Your Religion ► Christianity is a religion based on the teachings of Jesus Christ. Its sacred scripture is the Bible. ► It is the dominant religion in both Western European and Eastern Europe. ► Two major division § Catholic ► Most Italy of Europe is Catholic… In the South… France, Spain and § Protestant ► Northern countries… Germany and the United Kingdom
What’s Your Religion? ► Islam is the religious faith of Muslims founded by Muhammad in the 7 th century. Allah is the sole deity and Muhammad was his prophet. ► Many Muslims are immigrating to Western Europe, making Islam the fastest growing religion in Europe. Muslim populations are highest in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. There are large Muslim populations in Eastern European countries like Albania and Bosnia.
Standard of Living
Reading is Essential to the Standard of Living ► Standard of Living: measure of a nation’s quality of life based on income, education, life expectancy and other factors. ► One factor that has a huge effect on a country’s economic health and its citizens’ standard of living is Literacy Rate. ► A country that improves the literacy rate among its citizens will improve the standard of living within that country and improve its economy (income making potential). ► Educated and skilled workers are an important factor in a country’s economic growth!
Standard of Living ► Europe is unique because most countries that comprise this continent have approximately a 99% literacy rate. ► However, Russia places a high emphasis on education and has a 99% literacy rate, but the economy has struggled since the breakup of the Soviet Union. WHY? !! ► Therefore, there are obviously other factors which contribute to the standard of living.
Long story short… During the Cold War, the Soviet Union placed heavy importance on science and math education… think SPACE RACE… ARMS RACE… SPUTNIK… ► Well… along comes the end of the Cold War in 1991, the U. S. and the S. U. are now friends. And there is no longer a need for brilliant, or rather mad scientists (some may say) mind set. ► Now, the people must learn to exist and survive under a new government who requires the people to enter a new form of economy with new and different jobs. Unemployment rates skyrocket… like SPUTNIK ► Bottom line… smart, literate people with little common sense. (perhaps overly simplified, but you get the picture nonetheless) ►
Standard of Living ► Clearly there are some obvious factors which contribute to the standard of living. § Literacy rate: the ability of the people to read ► More people can read, more people working, better the products being created (think original cell phone to current IPhone) ► Unemployment rate: # of people not working ► As the unemployment rate goes up does the STANDARD OF LIVING go up or down? ► Can someone explain? § Life expectancy (how long the average person is expected to live) ► HUH? How does that influence how SOWEEEET my life is? ► SOMEONE EXPLAIN PLEASE!!
Partner Project Use the provided information sheets to complete the graphic organizers. ► Choose any 3 countries you want to know more about. ► Tomorrow we will share our findings. ► Be ready to present. ► You must answer the following question: ► What do the following concepts mean and how do the following terms relate? ► § § § Unemployment rate Literacy rate Standard of living Life expectancy GDP per capita
Unitary, Confederation, and Federal
Unitary: a form of government in which power is held by one central authority; Examples: Cuba and the United Kingdom
Confederation: voluntary associations of independent states that, to secure some common purpose, agree to certain limitations on their freedom of action and establish some joint machinery of consultation or deliberation. Example: European Union
Federal: characterized by or constituting a form of government in which power is divided between one central and several regional authorities. Examples: Australia, Germany, Russia, Canada, Brazil, Mexico
Autocracy Autocratic: government in which one person possesses unlimited power and the citizen has little if any role in the government. ► Example: Cuba ► In an autocracy, where most dictators maintain their position via inheritance or military power, the citizen has little, if any, role in the government. People who try to speak out against the government are often silenced through use of power. ► In an oligarchy, a small group exercises control. Communist countries are mostly oligarchies. The citizen has a very limited role in government. ► In a democracy, supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections. ►
Oligarchy Oligarchic: government by the few, sometimes a government in which a small group exercises control especially for corrupt and selfish purposes. The citizen has a very limited role. ► In an oligarchy, a small group exercises control. Communist countries are mostly oligarchies. ► The citizen has a very limited role in government.
Democracy ► Democratic: a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections. ► In a democracy, supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections. ► Examples: United Kingdom, Germany, Mexico, Brazil, Canada, Australia
Predominant Forms of Democracy: Presidential: a system of government in which the president is constitutionally independent of the legislature. Parliamentary: a system of government having the real executive power vested in a cabinet composed of members of the legislature who are individually and collectively responsible to the legislature. May have a Prime Minister elected by the legislature