- Slides: 30
Welcome to Contemporary Health Issues
CHAPTER 1 – DYNAMICS OF PERSONAL HEALTH Chapter 1 Objectives: 1) Identify the difference between Health and Wellness 2) Describe the dimensions of Health and Wellness 3) Identify the factors contributing to making positive change 4) Identify uncontrollable risk factors for Health and Wellness 5) Identify controllable risk factors Health and Wellness
Definition of Health – Being of sound in body, mind and spirit World Health Organization (WHO) – Being in a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. Evaluating one’s health by comparing to other individuals with similar demographics. Identifying risk factors that are controllable (lifestyle choices) versus uncontrollable (genetics).
Definition of Wellness – Making decisions that either positively or negatively affect how we live life. Wellness plays an important part in influencing risk factors we can control. John Travis MD – “The “well” person is not necessarily the strong, the brave, the successful, the young, the whole or even the illness free being”. John Travis MD – “No matter what your current state of health, you can begin to appreciate yourself as a growing, changing person and allow yourself to move toward a happier life and positive health
Iceberg Model of Wellness
Iceberg Model of Wellness (cont. ) Like the structure of an iceberg, wellness and illness is what is seen; whereas other facets of wellness including lifestyle, culture, spirit, motivation, etc. must be explored below the surface
Dimensions of Contemporary Health The six dimensions that directly influence are: Physical Health Emotional Spiritual Social Health Psychological / Intellectual Health Environmental These Health dimensions are interdependent; meaning success or failure in one dimension may directly affect success or failure in another dimension.
6 Dimensions of Health and Wellness
Physical Health Physical health is defined as a person’s physical wellbeing, sharpness of his or her senses, the functioning of his or her body, and the presence or absence of disease or infirmity.
Emotional Health Emotional health is defined as person’s emotional well-being relative to controlling emotions, and feeling good about one’s self in all settings.
Social Health Social health is defined as one’s ability to relate to other people in all settings. The settings include, but are not limited to one’s family, intimate partners, friends, fellow students or workers, professors and supervisors.
Spiritual Health Spiritual health is defined as one’s connection with a higher order or purpose beyond one’s self.
Intellectual or Psychological Health Intellectual health is defined as one’s ability to use intellectual resources to make decisions, overcome challenges, pursue goals, develop values, and evaluate experiences.
Environmental Health Environmental health is defined as the relationship of human behavior and their environment.
Factors Contributing to Making a Change Predisposing Factors Enabling Factors Reinforcing Factors
Predisposing Factors are considered as beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, expectancies and values.
Enabling Factors Enabling factors are defined as one’s skills or abilities, physical and mental capabilities, and the availability and accessibility of resources.
Reinforcing Factors Reinforcing factors are defined as reinforcement from social support or self-concept that influence either healthy or unhealthy behaviors.
Uncontrollable Risk Factors for Health and Wellness Ethnicity Gender Socioeconomic Status Family Health History
Ethnicity is defined as the heritage, nationality group, lineage or country of birth of the person or the person’s parents or ancestors before their arrival to the United States.
Ethnic Groups Today in the United States African Americans Hispanics Asian Americans American Native White (Latinos) Indians and Alaska Natives Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Americans (European)
Ethnic Groups in the United States African Life Americans Expectancy = 74. 6 years Leading Health Concerns = Obesity, Diabetes, High Blood Pressure, Stroke and Asthma African American Males Resent Concern = Increase case or incidence of Prostate Cancer.
Hispanic Americans Hispanic (Latinos) Life Expectancy = 82. 8 years Leading Health Concerns = Heart Disease, Cancer, Unintentional Injuries, Stroke and Diabetes Disparities Puerto Ricans have a high incident of lower birth weights, higher cases of asthma, HIV/AIDS, and infant mortality. Mexicans have higher rates of diabetes.
Asian Americans Life Expectancy = 86. 5 years Health Concerns = Highest rates of liver and stomach cancers in the United States Highest rate of Hepatitis B cases in the United States Highest rate of tuberculosis cases in the United States
American Indians and Alaskan Natives American Indians and Alaska Natives Life Expectancy = 76. 9 Health Concern = Heart Disease, Cancer, Unintentional Injuries, Diabetes, and Stroke. High incident of mental health and suicide, obesity, substance abuse, sudden infant death syndrome, teenage pregnancy and liver disease and hepatitis.
Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Americans Native Life Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Americans Expectancy = 68. 3 years Health Concerns = Cancer, Heart Disease, Unintentional Injuries, Stroke and Diabetes. Higher rates of smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity.
White Americans White Life Expectancy = 79. 12 years Health Concerns = Heart Disease, Cancer, Lung Disease, Unintentional Accidents, Stroke, Alzheimer’s and Diabetes. White Women are suffering from a life expectancy decline of one month because of an increase in unintentional injuries, suicide and chronic liver disease (CDC – April 20, 2016).
Gender Females Life Expectancy = 81. 3 years Health Concerns = Breast cancer, Lung cancer, Heart disease after menopause, unintentional injuries. Males Life Expectancy = 76. 3 years Health Concerns = Prostate cancer, Lung cancer, Heart disease after 18 until death. Note: Gender within ethnicity has various life expectancy as well as health concerns – Where are you?
Socioeconomic Status Economically disadvantaged individuals usually receive no health care or limited health care. Limited treatment options. Limited medical intervention (prescription and OTC drugs) Medicaid, Non-profit Medical Intervention, and Medicare.
Family Health History Recognizing one’s family health history is a key component for identifying health concerns that are not controllable. Popular Health Concerns Heart Disease Cancer Diabetes Sickle Cell, Tay Sach’s, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, etc.