Welcome to Biology 203 Marilyn M Shannon M

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Welcome to Biology 203!. Marilyn M. Shannon, M. A. , Course Coordinator Fall, 2018

Welcome to Biology 203!. Marilyn M. Shannon, M. A. , Course Coordinator Fall, 2018

Chapter Opener

Chapter Opener

Figure 15. 2 Cribriform plate Superior concha Nasal cavity Middle concha Inferior concha Vestibule

Figure 15. 2 Cribriform plate Superior concha Nasal cavity Middle concha Inferior concha Vestibule Frontal sinus Sphenoidal sinus Paranasal sinuses Superior meatus Middle meatus Inferior meatus Choana Nasal cavity Pharyngeal tonsil Naris Opening of auditory tube Hard palate Oral cavity Nasopharynx Soft palate Tongue Uvula Palatine tonsil Fauces Lingual tonsil Oropharynx Hyoid bone Laryngopharynx Epiglottis Larynx Vestibular fold Vocal fold Thyroid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Esophagus Trachea Medial view Pharynx

Figure 6. 30 Heads of metacarpal bones (knuckles) Head of ulna Olecranon process Acromion

Figure 6. 30 Heads of metacarpal bones (knuckles) Head of ulna Olecranon process Acromion process Medial border of scapula Olecranon process

Figure 7. 25 Deltoid Triceps brachii (lateral head) Biceps brachii Brachioradialis Forearm extensors Forearm

Figure 7. 25 Deltoid Triceps brachii (lateral head) Biceps brachii Brachioradialis Forearm extensors Forearm flexors Tendon of palmaris longus Tendon of flexor carpi radialis Intrinsic hand muscles Anterior view (a) ©Eric Wise

Figure 6. 38 Medial epicondyle of femur Head of fibula Patella Tibial tuberosity Calcaneus

Figure 6. 38 Medial epicondyle of femur Head of fibula Patella Tibial tuberosity Calcaneus Anterior crest of tibia Lateral epicondyle of femur Lateral malleolus Medial malleolus

Figure 7. 27 Tensor fasciae latae Sartorius Rectus femoris (quadriceps) Adductors Vastus lateralis (quadriceps)

Figure 7. 27 Tensor fasciae latae Sartorius Rectus femoris (quadriceps) Adductors Vastus lateralis (quadriceps) Vastus medialis (quadriceps) Anterior view (a) ©Eric Wise

Fig. 6 C Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Fig. 6 C Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Fracture ©Princess Margaret Rose Orthopaedic Hospital/SPL/Science Source

Figure 11. 7 ©Ed Reschke/ Photolibrary/Getty Images

Figure 11. 7 ©Ed Reschke/ Photolibrary/Getty Images

Figure 6. 45 Osteoporotic bone Normal bone ©Dr. Michael Klein/ Photolibrary/Getty Images

Figure 6. 45 Osteoporotic bone Normal bone ©Dr. Michael Klein/ Photolibrary/Getty Images

Fig. 1. 1 Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction

Fig. 1. 1 Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Chemical level. Atoms (colored balls) combine to form molecules. 2 Cell level. Molecules form organelles, such as the nucleus and mitochondria, which make up cells. 1 Atoms Mitochondria 3 Tissue level. Similar cells and surrounding materials make up tissues. 2 Nucleus Molecule (DNA) 4 Organ level. Different tissues combine to form organs, such as the urinary bladder. Smooth muscle cell 5 Organ system level. Organs, such as the urinary bladder and kidneys, make up an organ system. Smooth muscle tissue 3 6 Organism level. Organ systems make up an organism. Urinary bladder 4 Epithelium Connective tissue Smooth muscle tissue Kidney 6 5 Ureter Urinary bladder Urethra Urinary system Organism Connective tissue (bottom left): © Bart Harris/Corbis Wall of urinary bladder

Fig. 1. 4 Body temperature (normal range) Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education. Permission required

Fig. 1. 4 Body temperature (normal range) Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 98. 8°F Set point 98. 6°F 98. 4°F Time (min)

Fig. 1. 5 Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Fig. 1. 5 Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Receptors monitor the value of a variable. In this case, receptors in the skin monitor body temperature. 2 Information about the value of the variable is sent to a control center. In this case, nerves send information to the part of the brain responsible for regulating body temperature. 3 The control center compares the value of the variable against the set point. 2 Nerves 3 Control center (brain) 4 Sweat gland 4 If a response is necessary to maintain homeostasis, the control center causes an effector to respond. In this case, nerves send information to the sweat glands. 1 Receptors monitor body temperature. 5 Effector (sweat gland) responds to changes in body temperature. 5 An effector produces a response that maintains homeostasis. In this case, stimulating sweat glands lowers body temperature.

Fig. 1. 6 Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Fig. 1. 6 Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 3 4 Actions Control centers in the brain increase stimulation of sweat glands and relax blood vessels in the skin when receptors detect increased body temperature. Effectors Respond: Sweat glands produce sweat; blood vessels in the skin dilate. Homeostasis Disturbed: Body temperature increases. Start Here Sweat gland Homeostasis Restored: Body temperature decreases. 5 6 Body temperature (normal range) 1 Body temperature (normal range) 2 Reactions Homeostasis Disturbed: Body temperature decreases. Actions Control centers in the brain decrease stimulation of sweat glands and constrict blood vessels in the skin when receptors detect decreased body temperature. Homeostasis Restored: Body temperature increases. Reactions Effectors Respond: Sweat glands cease sweat production; blood vessels in the skin constrict; skeletal muscle contracts (shivering). Sweat gland

Figure 1. 6 Stimulus Receptors and control centers: Control centers in the brain increase

Figure 1. 6 Stimulus Receptors and control centers: Control centers in the brain increase stimulation of sweat glands and relax blood vessels in the skin when receptors detect increased body temperature. HOMEOSTASIS DISTURBED: Body temperature increases. Response Effectors: Sweat glands produce sweat; blood vessels in the skin dilate. Sweat gland HOMEOSTASIS RESTORED: Body temperature decreases.

Start Here Body temperature (normal range) Figure 1. 6 Contd. HOMEOSTASIS DISTURBED: Body temperature

Start Here Body temperature (normal range) Figure 1. 6 Contd. HOMEOSTASIS DISTURBED: Body temperature decreases. HOMEOSTASIS RESTORED: Body temperature increases. Stimulus Receptors and control centers: Control centers in the brain decrease stimulation of sweat glands and constrict blood vessels in the skin when receptors detect decreased body temperature. Response Effectors: Sweat glands cease sweat production; blood vessels in Sweat gland the skin constrict; skeletal muscle contracts (shivering).