- Slides: 45
WELCOME BACK! Get ready for notes!
Welcome to 2 nd Semester of World Studies Global Civics � What does it mean to be part of a society? � What is the relationship between an individual and a government? What systems have we seen? Are there other options? Is there a perfect system? � When should you rebel? � How should you rebel? � If you are successful (very rare), then how do you build a new government system?
The Big Dogs Comparative Approach: 1. China (5 weeks) Ancient history Colonization Revolution � � � � 2. Communism Present Day USA! (5 weeks) 1. 2. 3. Colonial context Philosophical foundations Constitutional System
Global Civics What do our values mean in the real world? International: Contemporary Domestic: � Supreme cases � Politics � Elections Court World Problems � Recent History and Foreign Policy Problems �North Korea/South Korea �India/Pakistan �Middle East Israel/Palestine Iran, Iraq, Syria �Humanitarian crises in
You will be a Senator. You will solve problems. You will present a unique, complex and focused argument about how the United States should address one Foreign Policy issue. � Based on our history, values, and practical needs. You will: � Choose an issue � Research the issue � Create a proposal (thesis) � Support that proposal (evidence, stats, info, stories: ethos, pathos, logos) � Write a persuasive paper � Participate in Senate committee debates � Participate in a Senate Floor Debate
Modern History Modern Methods We will be using more films this semester. To Live (China) Gandhi (India/Pakistan) Hotel Rwanda (Africa) �Invictus; Cry Freedom (clips) Inside North Korea (NK) Promises (Israel/Palestine)
China/East Asia Guiding Questions Physical: What is the impact of physical geography on Chinese history? Religion: What is more important: the needs of the individual or the needs of society? � � Government (Dynastic System): What is authority based on? � � How do societies pass on values and knowledge? Defense: How did Asian nations respond to European colonization attempts? � What is power? Why do some people have power over others? How does power change hands? Education: How do you measure learning and merit? � How should we behave in order to create an orderly society? Is it more important to have order, or freedom? Why is Japan unique? Economics: Does communism work? � Is China really a communist country?
On your physical map, add the following features: 1. The Great Wall of China 2. The Silk Road(s)
China has the longest recorded history of any human civilization. For much of history China has been the biggest, most powerful, most advanced, nation in the world. Why ?
HAPPY TUESDAY! Get your book, HW (map), and notes out.
Warm up Find & Discuss: Two geographic advantages Two geographic challenges
Notes Continue working on Cornell notes for pages 92 -100. Whatever you don’t finish in class becomes homework tonight! I have extra notes sheets if you need more.
Ancient China Use your notes to find one piece of information for each of the following Elements of Culture: 1. 2. 3. 4. Technology Government type Economics Social Organization (Gender Roles)
China: A Practical Power China must feed: 22 percent of the world population With less than 10 percent of the arable land The Chinese people demand: RESULTS. When there is prosperity, there is stability When there is not enough food, the
The Yellow River (Huang He) A big river: The 6 th longest river in the world. Very unpredictable: � frequent flooding destroyed villages, crops � Nickname: “China’s Sorrow” Yellow River Civilization: began about 4000 BCE
The Xia Mythical first Dynasty �We have no evidence that they ever really existed. A Golden Age based on engineering Yu the Great (AKA Yu the Engineer) Became powerful by organizing tribes together to build canals, dams, and levies
Warm up 1. What is power? 2. How do you get power? 3. How do humans justify having power over other people?
The Xia Role Models: Xia rulers are a model, something that later Chinese dynasties try to live up to. Chinese historians criticize dynasties for not living up to the standard that the Xia set. “I am not one who was born in the possession of knowledge; I am one who is fond of antiquity, and earnest in seeking it there. ” � Confucius
Fall of the Xia Dynasty: The fall of the Xia is blamed on its last king, King Jie is said to have fallen in love with an evil, beautiful woman and become a tyrant. The people rose up in rebellion under the leadership of Zi Lü, the founder of the Shang Dynasty.
“The Mandate of Heaven” What is authority based on? One answer: the gods. “The Mandate of Heaven”: the approval of the gods. When the Zhou overthrew the Shang in 1027 BCE, they argued that the Shang had lost the approval of the gods, because they were corrupt. From then on, whenever a new dynasty came into power, they claimed that they had the “Mandate of Heaven”
The Dynastic Cycle The Mandate of Heaven Is this a solid system? 1. What are the strengths of this system? 2. What problems might arise?
Dynasties! https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=x. Jis 9 TSw 1 r. E
The Shang Dynasty is the first major Chinese Dynasty (1700 s-1122 BCE) Monarchy. Built along the Yellow River. Rice, Wheat, Bronze (a soft metal)
Oracle Bones Shang Dynasty: Priests would submit questions to the gods. Priests would ask about: weather, crop planting, the fortunes of members of the royal family, or wars. These questions were carved onto the bone or shell. Intense heat was then applied with a metal rod until the bone or shell cracked. The Priest would then interpret the pattern of cracks and decide whether people should plant crops, go to war, or change their leaders.
http: //udi. lib. cuhk. edu. hk/projects/o racle-bones/view-oracle-bone Archaeologists have found thousands and thousands of oracle bones, each with a question carved on them. The questions on these oracle bones have told archaeologists a great deal about daily life during the Shang Dynasty. "If I sacrifice 8 men or 3 oxen, will it be sunny tomorrow? " A great many people and animals were sacrificed during Shang times so that Shang kings and queens could ask their ancestors questions. The people they sacrificed might be slaves, or people who were sick or deformed, or people captured in war, or someone who upset a noble, or a noble who upset the king. No one was safe. The only thing that was important to the Shang kings and queens was getting an answer to their question. What do the use of oracle bones tell us about ancient Chinese society?
Discuss What are some ways in which people try to get answers about the future or decisions to be made? No homework (other than prepare for your map quiz)
Warm up “I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand. ” -Confucius 1. 2. What does this quote mean? Do you think it is true?
China: The Zhou (1122 -221 BCE) Great cavalry warriors (used horses). Developed Iron technology (harder than bronze) Defeated the Shang Expected their defeated enemies, and the whole population, to be loyal to the Zhou. Came up with the idea of the Mandate of Heaven!
Zhou: Rise and Fall • • • A new political order was established: the king granted plots of land to lords, who in turn provided soldiers and paid taxes to the king. Poor farmers were granted land as well, and remained under the rule of the lords. The lords helped Zhou rulers keep control of the dynasty. As the lords’ power grew, they became uninterested in serving Zhou rulers. Many refused to fight against Zhou enemies. In 771 BC, the Zhou suffered a loss to invaders. The dynasty survived, but morale weakened, and the Zhou began to fight among themselves. The Warring States Period marked power struggles between the ruling-class families.
Zhou Achievements 1. 2. 3. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. perfection of bronze casting gold and silver inlays in metal and wooden/lacquered objects development of warfare technology like iron weapons, armament, chariots and fortifications engineering technology for irrigation, drainage, waterways, canals, dams dyeing of yarns and woven materials like silk and linen glass production perfection of the calendar regular observation of the sky, recording of irregular astronomical events maps of the sky; first geographical maps
Confucius: A practical man 1. Confucius was born during the Warring States period of the Zhou. He looked to the earlier history of the dynasty to develop many ideas of how society should behave/what the world was like.
Confucius: A practical man Five relationships lead to social order: Ruler and Subject Parent to child Husband wife Older sibling and younger sibling Friend to friend
Everybody has a role to play. “A youth is to be regarded with respect. How do we know that his future will not be equal to our present? ” �CONFUCIUS
Confucius: A practical man Find your two favorite sayings. 1. a) b) What do those sayings mean (in your own words)? How would these sayings lead to social stability?
Confucius emphasizes: � Moral cultivation of individuals, � Service to the state, � Leadership by ethical, educated men (the Kingly Way), � Harmony There is a Moral Order (The Mandate of Heaven) � Behavior is based on relationships � Filial Piety: Respect for father and family roles � Citizens respect the ruler � Ruler must act as a father to his citizens
What would Confucius do? Complete the worksheet. Make sure to answer using a maxim (you’ve already practiced this!) as well as summarize what your maxim means. We will discuss together.
Chinese Culture develops Family: � The basic unit of society � Respect for elders � Male superiority Women’s status based on # of children Social Class � Each class has a specific role to play in the economy Religious beliefs (Confucianism does not focus on afterlife) � Ancestor Worship: Belief that a person’s ancestors can affect your life Worshipped many other gods
Confucian Cartoons Partner work! (sort of) Produce two individual cartoons that reflect two versions of a similar story focused on one Confucian relationship. � One will show the positive and harmonious effects of a positive relationship � The second will show the negative and detrimental effects of a negative relationship Due tomorrow!