WEEK 4 Book p 296 316 Booklet p

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WEEK 4 Book p. 296 - 316 Booklet p. 23 - 24

WEEK 4 Book p. 296 - 316 Booklet p. 23 - 24

A NOUN CLAUSE is a group of words with a subject and a verb

A NOUN CLAUSE is a group of words with a subject and a verb

Like a noun. . . A noun clause can be a subject, a predicate

Like a noun. . . A noun clause can be a subject, a predicate nominative, a direct object, an indirect object, or an object of a preposition. It can come at the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence.

You can recognize a noun clause by one of the relative pronouns or adverbs

You can recognize a noun clause by one of the relative pronouns or adverbs that begin the clause

A noun clause consists of three components: A relative pronoun or adverb A subject

A noun clause consists of three components: A relative pronoun or adverb A subject A verb

Noun clauses function like nouns. They can be: subject complement object of prepositions

Noun clauses function like nouns. They can be: subject complement object of prepositions

Direct (quoted) Speech vs Indirect (reported) Speech Direct speech Indirect speech Simple present -----

Direct (quoted) Speech vs Indirect (reported) Speech Direct speech Indirect speech Simple present ----- Simple past Present progressive------ Past progressive Simple past----------- Past perfect Present perfect--------- Past perfect

Direct (quoted) speech States the exact words a speaker used. In writing, use quotation

Direct (quoted) speech States the exact words a speaker used. In writing, use quotation marks. John said, “ I love this class. ”

Indirect (reported) speech Reports what a speaker said without using the exact words. There

Indirect (reported) speech Reports what a speaker said without using the exact words. There are no quotation marks. John said that he loved this class.

The reporting verbs say and tell are usually in the simple past for both

The reporting verbs say and tell are usually in the simple past for both direct and indirect speech.

He said, “It’s great. ” He said it was great “I’m leaving. ” She

He said, “It’s great. ” He said it was great “I’m leaving. ” She said she was leaving “I made it. ” He said that he had made it. He said to her, “I’ve never lied. ” he told her that he had never lied

Remember to change pronouns, time and place expressions this and here in indirect speech

Remember to change pronouns, time and place expressions this and here in indirect speech to keep the speaker’s original meaning. Ann told Rick, “I bought this dress here. ” Ann told Rick that she had bought that dress there.

He said: “I’ll leave now. ” “I’m going to drive” “Traffic may be bad”

He said: “I’ll leave now. ” “I’m going to drive” “Traffic may be bad” “She might move. ” “He can help. ” “They have to stay. ” “You must be careful. ” He told me (that) He would leave then. He was going to drive Traffic may be bad she might move he could help They had to stay I must be careful

Some Modals change forms can – could may –might will – would have to,

Some Modals change forms can – could may –might will – would have to, must – had to could, might, should, would, ought to, and had better do not change form

“Are you bringing any fruit into the country? ” The customs officer asked the

“Are you bringing any fruit into the country? ” The customs officer asked the tourists if they were bringing any fruit into the country. “Do you have your transcripts with you? ” The registrar asked me if I had my transcripts with me.

“Can you fix my car? ” I asked the mechanic if he could fix

“Can you fix my car? ” I asked the mechanic if he could fix my car. “Did you see the accident? ” The police officer asked me if I had seen the accident.

“What do you want to be when you grow up? ” My first grade

“What do you want to be when you grow up? ” My first grade teacher asked me what I wanted to be when I grew up.

Reported commands and requests Commands and requests are reported using infinitives, not noun clauses

Reported commands and requests Commands and requests are reported using infinitives, not noun clauses “Bring the book!” She told me to bring the book.

 Elvis said, “I don’t know anything about music. In my line, you don’t

Elvis said, “I don’t know anything about music. In my line, you don’t have to”

 Quoted speech tells who said something and what they said. We use quoted

Quoted speech tells who said something and what they said. We use quoted speech for the exact words someone uses. We use it in novels, stories and newspaper articles.

 When we don’t want to use the exact words someone said, we use

When we don’t want to use the exact words someone said, we use reported speech. We use reported speech often in both speech and writing. It has a main clause and a noun clause. We use reported verbs such as say or tell.

 Quoted speech: Muhammad Ali said, “I´m the greatest. ” Repoted speech: Muhammad Ali

Quoted speech: Muhammad Ali said, “I´m the greatest. ” Repoted speech: Muhammad Ali said he was the greatest.

Changes in reported speech Simple present Simple past Present continuous Past continuous Simple past

Changes in reported speech Simple present Simple past Present continuous Past continuous Simple past Past perfect Present perfect Past perfect Will Would Can Could Have to / had Had to

Other changes There are many possible pronoun changes in reported speech. We use the

Other changes There are many possible pronoun changes in reported speech. We use the logic of each situation to decide on the changes. Bob said to Alice, “You gave me the wrong book. ” Bob said to Alice she had given him the wrong book.

Time and place expressions can change in reported speech. now then, at that time

Time and place expressions can change in reported speech. now then, at that time today, tonight that day, that night yesterday the day before tomorrow the next day this week that week last / next week the week before / after two weeks ago two weeks before here there in this place in that place

Rewrite the sentences as reported speech. Make the necessary changes. 1. I really like

Rewrite the sentences as reported speech. Make the necessary changes. 1. I really like this house, ” she said. She said she really liked that house. 2. She said, “We can walk to the shops from the house. ” She said they could walk to the shops from the house. 3. “We have looked for a long time. ” She said they had looked for a long time. 4. He said, “we’re getting married next month. ” He said they were getting married the following month. 5. She said, “My parents saw the house yesterday. ” She said her parents had seen the house the day before. 6. My father said, “You have to do some work on the house. ” My father said we had to do some work on the house.

Modal Verbs Can: We can make a cake together. Could: They said that we

Modal Verbs Can: We can make a cake together. Could: They said that we could make a cake together. - -Have to/must: You must go home early. Had to: He said that you had to go home early. -May: He may not like rock music. Might: He said that he might not like rock music.

-Could: You could tell the truth. Could: She said that you could tell the

-Could: You could tell the truth. Could: She said that you could tell the truth. -Should: : You left a hole where my heart should be. Should: He said that you left a hole where his heart should be. -Might: You might write a diary. Might: She said that you might write a diary. **Will: I will sit right beside you. Would: He said that I would sit right beside you.

EXERCISES Exercises about Declarative Sentences with modal verbs: 1) Complete the sentences with modal

EXERCISES Exercises about Declarative Sentences with modal verbs: 1) Complete the sentences with modal verbs (Reported Speech): -She said that we (can) be better students. -They said that you (have to) do your homework. -He said that she (may) trust in you. -They said that you (could) stay here with me. -You said that I (should) leave him alone. -He said that they (might) be friendly. **She said that you (will) do something important in your life.

REPORTED SPEECH Direct Speech: when somebody is actually speaking “My name is Somchai” Reported

REPORTED SPEECH Direct Speech: when somebody is actually speaking “My name is Somchai” Reported Speech: when you are saying what somebody else said He said that his name was Somchai.

REPORTED SPEECH Reported Speech We use reported speech if we want to repeat something

REPORTED SPEECH Reported Speech We use reported speech if we want to repeat something without using the speakers original words. No Backshift If the introductory sentence is in; simple present, we use - ‘He/she says. . . ’ present perfect, we use - ‘He/she has said. . . ’ future I, we use - ‘He/she will or is going to say. . . ’ eg: He says, “I talk. ” – He says that he talks.

REPORTED SPEECH Backshift If the introductory sentence is in; simple past, we use ‘He/she

REPORTED SPEECH Backshift If the introductory sentence is in; simple past, we use ‘He/she said. . . ’ past perfect, ‘He/she had said. . . ’ future II, ‘He/she will have said. . . ’ conditional I, ‘He/she would say. . . ’ conditional II, ‘He/she would have said. . . ’ eg: He said, “I have spoken. ” – He said that he had spoken.

REPORTED SPEECH DIRECT SPEECH simple present REPORTED SPEECH simple past perfect present perfect past

REPORTED SPEECH DIRECT SPEECH simple present REPORTED SPEECH simple past perfect present perfect past perfect or past perfect 1 st conditional 2 nd conditional or

REPORTED SPEECH REMEMBER! Using backshift means that certain place and time expressions must also

REPORTED SPEECH REMEMBER! Using backshift means that certain place and time expressions must also be changed. He said, “I want to go here. ” He said that he wanted to go there.

REPORTED SPEECH Direct speech Reported speech today that day now then yesterday the day

REPORTED SPEECH Direct speech Reported speech today that day now then yesterday the day before …. days ago …. days before last week the week before next year the following year tomorrow the following day here this that these those

REPORTED SPEECH EXERCISES - USING BACKSHIFT Example: She said, "I am reading. " →

REPORTED SPEECH EXERCISES - USING BACKSHIFT Example: She said, "I am reading. " → She said that she was reading.

REPORTED SPEECH 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. They said, "We are busy. " →

REPORTED SPEECH 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. They said, "We are busy. " → They said that ______. He said, "I know a better restaurant. " → He said that _______. She said, "I woke up early. " → She said that ______. He said, "I will call her. " → He said that _______. They said, "We have just arrived. " → They said that ______.

REPORTED SPEECH 7. He said, "I will clean the car. " → He said

REPORTED SPEECH 7. He said, "I will clean the car. " → He said that ______. 8. She said, "I did not say that. " → She said that _____. 9. She said, "I don't know where you live. " → She said that _____. . 10 He said, "I won't tell anyone. " → He said that ______. 11. We said, “There’s a party tonight. ” → They said that ______.

REPORTED SPEECH EXERCISES - USING BACKSHIFT + PLACE Imagine you want to repeat sentences

REPORTED SPEECH EXERCISES - USING BACKSHIFT + PLACE Imagine you want to repeat sentences that you heard two weeks ago in another place. Rewrite the sentences in reported speech. Remember to change pronouns and expressions of time and place. Example: They said, "This is our book. " → They said that was their book.

REPORTED SPEECH 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. She said, “I’m going to the cinema

REPORTED SPEECH 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. She said, “I’m going to the cinema next week. “ → She said __________. He said, "I am taking a test tomorrow. " → He said __________. You said, "I will do this for him. " → I said __________. She said, "I am not hungry now. " → She said __________. They said, "We have never been here before. " → They said __________.

REPORTED SPEECH 6. She said, “My friend was in Bangkok last week. “ →

REPORTED SPEECH 6. She said, “My friend was in Bangkok last week. “ → She said _________. 7. She asked me, "Where have you been? " → She asked _________. 8. He told me, "Be quiet!" → He told ___________. 9. The teacher asked, “Can you be quiet please? ” → The teacher asked _________. 10. The boy said, ”Come with me please. ” → The boy said __________.

REPORTED SPEECH 0 EXERCISES – WITH + WITHOUT BACKSHIFT Rewrite the sentences in reported

REPORTED SPEECH 0 EXERCISES – WITH + WITHOUT BACKSHIFT Rewrite the sentences in reported speech. Note that backshift is not necessary in all sentences. Example: She said: "I am here now. " → She said that she was there then.

REPORTED SPEECH 1. She says, "It's a nice day today. " → She says

REPORTED SPEECH 1. She says, "It's a nice day today. " → She says __________. 2. Last week he said, "I saw a film yesterday. " → Last week he said __________. 3. They will say, "We’ll move the table ourselves. " → They will say ___________. 4. She told me, "Don't forget to buy milk. " → She told me ____________. 5. She said, “Tokyo is a city in Japan. " → She said _____________.

REPORTED SPEECH 6. He told me, "Lock the door when you are leaving. "

REPORTED SPEECH 6. He told me, "Lock the door when you are leaving. " → He told me ___________. 7. When we were in Japan, we met some friends and you asked them, "What are you doing here? " → You asked them _________. 8. He would say, "I don't believe it. " → He would say __________. 9. Yesterday she asked him, "Where did you spend your holiday last year? " → She asked him __________.

HE TOLD ME TO INFIVITIVE

HE TOLD ME TO INFIVITIVE

COMMAND EXAMPLE DIRECT The teacher told me that I should open Siska told Manu:

COMMAND EXAMPLE DIRECT The teacher told me that I should open Siska told Manu: “give me a piece of paper”! my book page 65. “Ronny told him: “call me tonight! Siska told Manu that he should give her a piece of paper. Ronny told him that he had to call him that night. INDIRECT The teacher told me: Open your book page 65!”

NOUN CLAUSES THAT BEGIN WITH A QUESTION WORD Information Question NOUN CLAUSE leave? (e)

NOUN CLAUSES THAT BEGIN WITH A QUESTION WORD Information Question NOUN CLAUSE leave? (e) What did she say? (g) Why is Tom absent? when they left? * (f) Please tell me what she said? (h) I wonder why Tom is absent. order is NOT used in an noun clause: Incorrect: I know where he does live. Correct: I know where he lives. (i) Who came to class? (k) What happened? (j) I don’t know who came to class. (l) Tell me what happened. In (i) and (j): Question word order and noun clause word order are the same when the question word is used as a subject. These question words can be used to Notice in the (a) Where does (b) I don’t know : when, introduced a he noun clause why, how, example: lives? where he lives. Usual question word who, whom, what, which, (c) When did they (d) Do you know whose.

 *A question mark is used at the end of this noun clause because

*A question mark is used at the end of this noun clause because the main subject and verb of the sentences (Do you know) are in question word order. Example: Do you know when they left? Do you know asks a question; when they left is a noun clause. Question noun clause = subject + verb Question consist of auxiliary verb Noun clause does not consist of auxiliary verb

NOUN CLAUSES WITH WHO, WHAT, WHOSE + BE CLAUSE QUESTION v s Who is

NOUN CLAUSES WITH WHO, WHAT, WHOSE + BE CLAUSE QUESTION v s Who is that boy? NOUN s v (b) Tell me who that boy is. v s s v © Whose pen is this? (d) Tell me whose pen this is. A noun clause or pronoun that follows main verb be in a question comes in front of be in a noun clause, as in (b) and (d). s v Who is in the office? (f) Tell me who is in the office. s v Whose pen is on the desk? (h) Tell me whose pen is on the desk. A prepositional phrase (e. g. , in the office) does not come in front of be in a noun clause, as in (f) and (h).

makes a sentence beginning with “I wonder” or “I don’t know” and then puts

makes a sentence beginning with “I wonder” or “I don’t know” and then puts the information from the question into clause word Is it going to rainnoun next week? order. I wonder (I don’t know) if it’s going to rain next week.

If/whether Is there a test next week? I wonder (I don’t know) if there

If/whether Is there a test next week? I wonder (I don’t know) if there is a test next week.

If/whether Do we have homework today? I wonder (I don’t know) if we have

If/whether Do we have homework today? I wonder (I don’t know) if we have homework today.

If/whether Did the teacher give us homework? I wonder (I don’t know) if the

If/whether Did the teacher give us homework? I wonder (I don’t know) if the teacher gave us homework.

If/whether Did I do the work correctly? I wonder (I don’t know) if did

If/whether Did I do the work correctly? I wonder (I don’t know) if did the work correctly?

If/whether Did Diane grade the tests? I wonder (I don’t know) if Diane graded

If/whether Did Diane grade the tests? I wonder (I don’t know) if Diane graded the tests.

If/whether Will we do well on the next test? I wonder (I don’t know)

If/whether Will we do well on the next test? I wonder (I don’t know) if we will do well on the next test.

If/whether Will I have time to study tonight? I wonder (I don’t know) if

If/whether Will I have time to study tonight? I wonder (I don’t know) if I will have time to study tonight.

If/whether Has the college raised tuition again? I wonder (I don’t know) if the

If/whether Has the college raised tuition again? I wonder (I don’t know) if the college has raised tuition again.

If/whether Has the college decided to build another parking lot? I wonder (I don’t

If/whether Has the college decided to build another parking lot? I wonder (I don’t know) if the college has decided to build another parking lot.

that Statements of urgency with that: Adjectives (command) + that + simple form of

that Statements of urgency with that: Adjectives (command) + that + simple form of the verb Statements of requests with that: Adjectives (request) + that + simple form of the verb