Weak compliance limits EIA effectiveness comparative research in

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Weak compliance limits EIA effectiveness comparative research in Ghana and Georgia Arend Kolhoff Ph.

Weak compliance limits EIA effectiveness comparative research in Ghana and Georgia Arend Kolhoff Ph. D – IAIA-17 Montreal

Research Main research question: – Which factors explain the effectiveness of EIA in Ghana

Research Main research question: – Which factors explain the effectiveness of EIA in Ghana and Georgia EIA procedure: – EIA phase: screening, scoping, reviewing, approval /licensing – EIA follow-up phase: compliance monitoring / inspection and enforcement 2

Conceptual model Context EIA system EIA legislation Interventions Actors & capacities performance Effectiveness Environmental

Conceptual model Context EIA system EIA legislation Interventions Actors & capacities performance Effectiveness Environmental protection 3

Conceptual model Context EIA system EIA legislation Interventions Key actors & key capacities Effectiveness

Conceptual model Context EIA system EIA legislation Interventions Key actors & key capacities Effectiveness performance Environmental protection 4

Method – Comparative research in: • Ghana (4 cases; 53 interviews; field visits) •

Method – Comparative research in: • Ghana (4 cases; 53 interviews; field visits) • Georgia (8 cases; 66 interviews; field visits) 5

Measuring effectiveness Effectivness B b 6

Measuring effectiveness Effectivness B b 6

Ghana 7

Ghana 7

Georgia 8

Georgia 8

Level of effectiveness Low Start EIA End EIA F-up Moderate High N= Low+ Mod.

Level of effectiveness Low Start EIA End EIA F-up Moderate High N= Low+ Mod. + High+ 2 4 6 - - - 12

Level of effectiveness Low Moderate High N= Low+ Mod. + High+ Start EIA 2

Level of effectiveness Low Moderate High N= Low+ Mod. + High+ Start EIA 2 4 6 - - - 12 End EIA 1 2 7 2 - - 12 EIA F-up

Level of effectiveness Low Moderate High N= Low+ Mod. + High+ Start EIA 2

Level of effectiveness Low Moderate High N= Low+ Mod. + High+ Start EIA 2 4 6 - - - 12 End EIA 1 2 7 2 - - 12 EIA F-up 2 5 3 2 - - 12

Conclusion (1) • Positive changes during EIA phase • These changes lost during EIA

Conclusion (1) • Positive changes during EIA phase • These changes lost during EIA follow-up phase due to weak inspection and enforcement by the EIA authority • Total effect of EIA is limited – IFI funded projects (N=5) score slightly better – Ghana scores better than Georgia 12

Explaining effectiveness Sector ministry Donorr Proponent r EIA arena formal + informal institutions Peopler

Explaining effectiveness Sector ministry Donorr Proponent r EIA arena formal + informal institutions Peopler Project characterist. nr EIA authority nr Effectivenessr 13

Explaining effectiveness Effectiveness Proponent EIA auth. IFIs Public N= Low 2 Low will No

Explaining effectiveness Effectiveness Proponent EIA auth. IFIs Public N= Low 2 Low will No influence NR No influence Low+ 5 Moderate will Little to strong influence Influence moderate Little influence High will Moderate to strong influence Influence strong Little influence Moder. /+ 5 14

How to improve EIA effectiveness? • Improve compliance / enforcement: • Strategies by the

How to improve EIA effectiveness? • Improve compliance / enforcement: • Strategies by the EIA / inspection authority – More capacity – More effective capacity • Georgia: Re-active approach • Ghana: Pro-active approach - Strengthen accountability mechanisms 15

Conclusion (2) • Proponent’s will and power determines EIA effectiveness • EIA authority’s opportunity

Conclusion (2) • Proponent’s will and power determines EIA effectiveness • EIA authority’s opportunity to force and enforce the proponent – Low - when the will of the proponent is low – Grows – when the will of the proponent increases • IFIs can have a considerable influence on effectiveness • The public has no to little influence • Findings illustrative for EIA effectiveness in Ghana & Georgia • Pro-active compliance approach by EIA authority is more effective 16