- Slides: 7
Ways of thinking Systems Thinking Ways of Thinking
Ways of Thinking Trapped, Boundaries, Perspectives Logical Thinking Causal Thinking Chains of Causes and Consequences (multiple Causes). The network of multiple causes. Reductions Thinking Failure of logical and Causal Ways 1. Observation of characteristics 2. Ignores subjective and emotional factors 3. Can not predict the behavior of complex
• 4. Interconnectedness and feedback loops • Characteristics of Scientific Method: • 1 - getting General Principles from instances • 2 -Ignoring subjective Elements • 3 -Concentrating on simpler systems • 4 -Breaking situations into smaller parts with single cause and effects.
4. Holistic thinking Dealing with wholes rather than parts Looking at parts and overlooks the relationship of the people which is crucial for what is going on. “It is the interplay of all the relationship s between the people, and these are crucial to what is going on”. The behavior of the group emerges from the interaction of the whole, and it cannot be predicted by looking separately at the behavior of each of the part. The idea of information overload and information junk.
• All ways of thinking simplify because full knowledge and understanding of reality is impossible. • Multiple partial views • Perspectives, world views or Weltanchauung • Three ways in which perspectives can be gained:
• !. Be clear about your own point of view • 2. See the system through the eyes of others • 3. Look for the unintendded consequences • Distinction between world view and perspective • Perspective looks at things from your current position
• World view how you see the world, regardless of your current position. • Conclusion • Reductionist and holistic thinking can be complementary.