WAVES Waves can be Water waves Sound waves

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WAVES

WAVES

Waves can be… • • • Water waves Sound waves Light waves Earthquake waves

Waves can be… • • • Water waves Sound waves Light waves Earthquake waves Waves in a slinky Stadium waves

Waves transmit energy… …waves do not move matter (objects) from one place to another

Waves transmit energy… …waves do not move matter (objects) from one place to another like wind or water currents. Instead, energy moves from place to place through waves… …if matter moves, it vibrates in an up and down / side to side motion, a forward and back motion, or both (circular).

Wave – Any disturbance that transmits energy through matter or empty space.

Wave – Any disturbance that transmits energy through matter or empty space.

Vibration A vibration is a complete back and forth motion of matter. • It

Vibration A vibration is a complete back and forth motion of matter. • It is the source or beginning and waves travel outward in all directions from this source.

Waves in water travel outward in all directions

Waves in water travel outward in all directions

Sound waves travel outward in all directions.

Sound waves travel outward in all directions.

Sunlight (radiation) travels outward in all directions.

Sunlight (radiation) travels outward in all directions.

Earthquake waves travel outward in all directions.

Earthquake waves travel outward in all directions.

Medium A Medium is a substance through which a wave can travel such as

Medium A Medium is a substance through which a wave can travel such as air, water, rock …

Electromagnetic Waves • Waves that do not require a medium. • Light travels by

Electromagnetic Waves • Waves that do not require a medium. • Light travels by electromagnetic waves called radiation. • Light (radiation) can travel through the emptiness of space (no medium) from the Sun to the Earth. • Light (radiation) can also travel through many types of matter (medium) like air, water, glass…

Electromagnetic Radiation The different types of electromagnetic energy

Electromagnetic Radiation The different types of electromagnetic energy

Electromagnetic spectrum A chart that organizes the types of electromagnetic energy in order by

Electromagnetic spectrum A chart that organizes the types of electromagnetic energy in order by wavelength.

Visible light spectrum

Visible light spectrum

What warms the Earth? • Nuclear Reactions in the Sun produce the energy that

What warms the Earth? • Nuclear Reactions in the Sun produce the energy that is released in all directions as Electromagnetic radiation (light energy). • This light energy travels through the emptiness of space as electromagnetic radiation and some of it reaches the Earth’s surface. • When this light energy strikes the Earth’s surface, some of it is reflected off and some of it is absorbed then transferred into heat energy.

Mechanical Waves • Waves that require a medium. • Sound travels by mechanical waves

Mechanical Waves • Waves that require a medium. • Sound travels by mechanical waves • Sound cannot travel through the emptiness of space (no medium). • Sound waves need air, water, glass or some other matter to vibrate and thus travel through.

Longitudinal Waves in which the particles of the medium move in the same direction

Longitudinal Waves in which the particles of the medium move in the same direction as the direction the wave is traveling. ----------------------------------------------------------- Transverse Waves in which the particles of the medium move perpendicular to the direction the wave is traveling.

Transverse Waves Crest Trough Direction of travel Waves in which the particles of the

Transverse Waves Crest Trough Direction of travel Waves in which the particles of the medium move perpendicular to the direction the wave is traveling.

Crest & Trough • Crest – The highest point of a transverse wave •

Crest & Trough • Crest – The highest point of a transverse wave • Trough - The lowest point of a transverse wave

Longitudinal Waves in which the particles of the medium move in the same direction

Longitudinal Waves in which the particles of the medium move in the same direction as the direction the wave is traveling. Compressions Rarefactions Direction of travel

Compression & Rarefaction • Compression – A part of a longitudinal wave where the

Compression & Rarefaction • Compression – A part of a longitudinal wave where the particles are crowded together • Rarefaction - A part of a longitudinal wave where the particles are spread apart

Surface waves • Form when a transverse wave and a longitudinal wave combine. •

Surface waves • Form when a transverse wave and a longitudinal wave combine. • The particles of the medium move both perpendicular to and in the same direction as the direction the wave is traveling resulting in a circular motion. • Water waves are surface waves. Circular motion Direction of travel

Seismic Waves • Earthquake waves are Seismic waves. • The medium is the Rock

Seismic Waves • Earthquake waves are Seismic waves. • The medium is the Rock of the Earth.

Waves are characterized by… • Amplitude • Wavelength • Frequency

Waves are characterized by… • Amplitude • Wavelength • Frequency

Waves are characterized by… • Amplitude – The maximum distance that the particles of

Waves are characterized by… • Amplitude – The maximum distance that the particles of the wave’s medium vibrate from their rest position. • Wavelength – The distance from any point on a wave to an identical point on the next wave. • Frequency – The number of waves produced in a given amount of time.

Amplitude The maximum distance that the particles of the wave’s medium vibrate from their

Amplitude The maximum distance that the particles of the wave’s medium vibrate from their rest position.

Changing Amplitude Small Amplitude Large amplitude Small amplitude Large Amplitude

Changing Amplitude Small Amplitude Large amplitude Small amplitude Large Amplitude

Frequency The number of waves produced in a given amount of time. High frequency

Frequency The number of waves produced in a given amount of time. High frequency & Short wavelength Low frequency & Long wavelength

Wave Reflection The bouncing back of a ray of light, sound or heat when

Wave Reflection The bouncing back of a ray of light, sound or heat when the ray hits a surface that it does not go through.

Wave Refraction The bending of a wave as the wave passes between two substances

Wave Refraction The bending of a wave as the wave passes between two substances in which the speed of the wave differs. Refraction - thick mug illusion by Paul G Hewitt You. Tube

Wave Diffraction A change in the direction of a wave when the wave finds

Wave Diffraction A change in the direction of a wave when the wave finds an obstacle or an edge, such as an opening.

Wave Interference When the crest line up with crests, the resulting wave is increased

Wave Interference When the crest line up with crests, the resulting wave is increased (constructive interference) When the crests line up with troughs, the resulting wave is decreased (destructive interference) Wave Interference – You. Tube Beats (acoustics) - You. Tube

Standing Wave A pattern of vibration that simulates a wave that is standing still.

Standing Wave A pattern of vibration that simulates a wave that is standing still. Creating Standing Waves – You. Tube Standing Wave River Surfing at Waimea Bay - You. Tube Standing Waves Generated by String Vibration - You. Tube

Resonant frequency The frequency at which standing waves are made.

Resonant frequency The frequency at which standing waves are made.

Resonance • breaking a wine glass using resonance – You. Tube • Girl breaks

Resonance • breaking a wine glass using resonance – You. Tube • Girl breaks glass with voice – You. Tube • Myth busters Breaking Glass with your voice!! part 2 - You. Tube

Resonance • Wine Glass Music – You. Tube • Glass music-Dance of the sugar

Resonance • Wine Glass Music – You. Tube • Glass music-Dance of the sugar plum fairy -Tchaikovsky – You. Tube

Resonance – sympathetic vibrations of tuning forks • Resonance – You. Tube (tuning forks)

Resonance – sympathetic vibrations of tuning forks • Resonance – You. Tube (tuning forks) • interference of sound beats - You. Tube • Car on the Tacoma Narrow Bridge - You. Tube • Tacoma Bridge – You. Tube

Sonic Boom If an object can travel faster than the speed of sound, it

Sonic Boom If an object can travel faster than the speed of sound, it will catch up to its own sound. The sound waves will compress and make a large “BOOM”. Sonic Boom You. Tube

Doppler Effect

Doppler Effect

Link to …

Link to …

http: //www. acoustics. org/press/151 st /Lindwall. html

http: //www. acoustics. org/press/151 st /Lindwall. html

Wave Terminology Wave – Any disturbance that transmits energy through matter or empty space

Wave Terminology Wave – Any disturbance that transmits energy through matter or empty space Medium – a substance through which a wave can travel Mechanical Wave – Waves that need a medium (substance) Electromagnetic Wave - Waves that transfer energy without going through a medium Transverse Wave – Waves in which the particles of the medium move perpendicular to the direction the wave is traveling Longitudinal Wave - Waves in which the particles of the medium move in the same direction as the direction the wave is traveling Surface Wave – Waves in which the particles of the medium move both perpendicular to and in the same direction as the direction the wave is traveling resulting in a circular motion Perpendicular – At right angles to Crest – The highest point of a transverse wave Trough - The lowest point of a transverse wave Compression – A part of a longitudinal wave where the particles are crowded together Rarefaction - A part of a longitudinal wave where the particles are spread apart

Wave Terminology Wave – Any disturbance that transmits energy through matter or empty space

Wave Terminology Wave – Any disturbance that transmits energy through matter or empty space Medium – a substance through which a wave can travel Mechanical Wave – Waves that need a medium (substance) Electromagnetic Wave - Waves that transfer energy without going through a medium.

 • Transverse Wave – Waves in which the particles of the medium move

• Transverse Wave – Waves in which the particles of the medium move perpendicular to the direction the wave is traveling. • Longitudinal Wave - Waves in which the particles of the medium move in the same direction as the direction the wave is traveling. • Surface Wave – Waves in which the particles of the medium move both perpendicular to and in the same direction as the direction the wave is traveling resulting in a circular motion

 • Perpendicular – At right angles to • Crest – The highest point

• Perpendicular – At right angles to • Crest – The highest point of a transverse wave • Trough - The lowest point of a transverse wave • Compression – A part of a longitudinal wave where the particles are crowded together • Rarefaction - A part of a longitudinal wave where the particles are spread apart

Waves (1 -2) Terms and Definitions • Amplitude • Wavelength • Frequency • Hertz

Waves (1 -2) Terms and Definitions • Amplitude • Wavelength • Frequency • Hertz • Wave Speed

 • Amplitude – The maximum distance that the particles of the wave’s medium

• Amplitude – The maximum distance that the particles of the wave’s medium vibrate from their rest position. • Wavelength – The distance from any point on a wave to an identical point on the next wave. • Frequency – The number of waves produced in a given amount of time. • Hertz – The units used when measuring wave frequency (number of waves per second). • Wave Speed – The speed at which a wave travels through a medium.

Waves (1 -3) Terms and Definitions • • • Reflection Echo Refraction Diffraction Interference

Waves (1 -3) Terms and Definitions • • • Reflection Echo Refraction Diffraction Interference Constructive Interference Destructive Interference Standing Wave Resonant Frequencies Resonance

 • Reflection – The bouncing back of a ray of light, sound, or

• Reflection – The bouncing back of a ray of light, sound, or heat when the ray hits a surface that it does not go through. • Echo – A reflected sound wave • Refraction – The bending of a wave as the wave passes between two substances and the speed of the wave changes. • Diffraction – The bending of a wave around an obstacle or through an opening. • Interference – The combination of two or more waves that result in a single wave. • Constructive Interference – When two waves overlap and their energy is combined (crests line up with crests) to produce a wave with a larger amplitude and more energy than the original waves. • Destructive Interference - When two waves overlap and their energy is canceled by the other wave (crests line up with troughs) to produce a wave with a smaller amplitude and less energy than the original waves. • Standing Wave – A wave produced by both constructive and destructive interference that appears to be standing still. • Resonant Frequencies – The frequency at which standing waves are made. • Resonance – A phenomenon that occurs when two objects naturally vibrate at the same frequency: the sound produced by one object causes the other object to vibrate.

 • Reflection – The bouncing back of a ray of light, sound, or

• Reflection – The bouncing back of a ray of light, sound, or heat when the ray hits a surface that it does not go through. • Echo – A reflected sound wave • Refraction – The bending of a wave as the wave passes between two substances and the speed of the wave changes. • Diffraction – The bending of a wave around an obstacle or through an opening.

 • Interference – The combination of two or more waves that result in

• Interference – The combination of two or more waves that result in a single wave. • Constructive Interference – When two waves overlap and their energy is combined (crests line up with crests) to produce a wave with a larger amplitude and more energy than the original waves. • Destructive Interference - When two waves overlap and their energy is canceled by the other wave (crests line up with troughs) to produce a wave with a smaller amplitude and less energy than the original waves.

 • Standing Wave – A wave produced by both constructive and destructive interference

• Standing Wave – A wave produced by both constructive and destructive interference that appears to be standing still. • Resonant Frequencies – The frequency at which standing waves are made. • Resonance – A phenomenon that occurs when two objects naturally vibrate at the same frequency: the sound produced by one object causes the other object to vibrate.