Before we start… 1) 2) 3) What are some examples of waves in nature? What are some variables that can be used to measure waves? Do different types of waves exist? Explain.
… 1) What are some examples of waves in nature? � 2) What are some variables can we use to measure waves? � 3) ripples in a pond, a guitar string, an earthquake wavelength, frequency, amplitude Do different types of waves exist? Explain. � � mechanical waves electromagnetic waves
You have 15 minutes! Read page 92 - 95 in the textbook and fill out concept review 13, (page 49), in the workbook.
Definitions A wave is: �A disturbance that travels through a medium or space. A wave transports energy, not matter. A transverse wave is: �A wave that propagates perpendicular to the motion of its medium. A longitudinal wave is: �A wave that propagates parallel to the motion of its medium.
… A mechanical wave is: �A wave that travels through a medium. For example: water, air or land. � Transverse and longitudinal waves are mechanical. An electromagnetic wave is: �A wave in which no medium is needed, only space. � Light, radio, x-rays and gamma rays are electromagnetic. � They travel through space at a speed of 186, 000 miles/second, or the speed of light.
Characteristics of Waves All waves can be characterized by four things: � The way they propagate, or move. � Their amplitude. � Their wavelength. � Their frequency.
Characteristic #1 - Propagation Transverse Waves A wave that propagates perpendicular to the motion of its medium. Usually associated with waves in the water.
… Transverse waves have certain parts: � Crest – the peak of a wave. � Trough – the lowest point of a wave. � Equilibrium – the middle part of a wave.
Characteristic #1 - Propagation Longitudinal Waves A wave that propagates parallel to the motion of its medium. Usually associated with sound, (sound waves). Sound is a series of vibrations moving through the air.
… Longitudinal waves have certain parts: � Region of compression – region where the particles are closer together. � Region of rarefaction – region where the particles are further apart.
Characteristic #2 Amplitude Symbol: A Amplitude refers to the amount of energy transmitted by a wave. The more energy emitted by a wave, the greater the amplitude. � energy, amplitude. Definition: the maximum distance travelled by a particle in the medium compared to its position at equilibrium.
In a transverse wave, simply find the maximum distance between the crest and the equilibrium. In a longitudinal wave, it is more difficult to determine. Amplitude depends on the density in the region of compression.
Characteristic #3 Wavelength Symbol: λ (lambda) The length of a wave is the measurement of one complete cycle of a wave. In a transverse wave – the wavelength is the distance between two crests. In a longitudinal wave – the wavelength includes one cycle of compression and one of rarefaction.
Characteristic #4 Frequency Unit of measure: hertz, (Hz) Frequency is the number of complete waves, or cycles, that are formed at any given point over a period of time, (see wavelength). Number of cycles per unit of time. The unit hertz refers to the number of cycles per second. Ie – if a the frequency is 1 Hz, then the wave completes a full cycle in one second.
Stop and Read pages 96 & 97 1. What is the difference between a mechanical wave and an electromagnetic wave? 2. Give an example of each. 3. What is the medium for: a. b. c. Water waves? Sound waves? Seismic waves?
Types of Waves There are two types of waves: � Mechanical � Electromagnetic Mechanical waves require a medium or an environment in order to travel. They cannot travel through a vacuum. Electromagnetic waves do not need a medium – they can travel through a medium, or a vacuum.
Mechanical Waves Examples of mediums: water, land, or air. A mechanical wave arises when there is a localized disturbance that changes the physical state of the medium. �A rock is thrown into a puddle. � An instrument is played. The changes caused by the disturbance are transmitted to nearby particles, and so on. This is how a wave propagates. Sound waves are mechanical.
Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves that move just as easily in a vacuum as they do through a medium. This is why solar rays reach us, even though they pass through the vacuum of space and the atmosphere. Like all waves, electromagnetic waves are carrying energy. In this case, they are carrying radiant energy, in the form of light.
… There are many kinds of electromagnetic waves, classified according to their frequency and their wavelength. The greater the frequency, the more energy they are carrying. All electromagnetic waves together form the electromagnetic spectrum – a way to organize these waves.
Comparison Wave Type Medium Examples Mechanical wave Can only move Seismic, sound, in a medium water Associated with Sound Electromagnetic wave Light Can propagate Radio waves, in a medium or light waves, UV a vacuum rays, x-rays, infrared waves, gamma waves
Electromagnetic Spectrum This is the range of all possible frequencies in electromagnetic radiation. Read pages 98 and 99.