Water Pollution Solid Waste Pollution C 4 Urban

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Water Pollution & Solid Waste Pollution C 4 Urban Problems Cathy Phoebe Melissa Nicole

Water Pollution & Solid Waste Pollution C 4 Urban Problems Cathy Phoebe Melissa Nicole Koffey

Water Pollution

Water Pollution

Water Pollution �The amount of exotic materials entering the water body reaches a level

Water Pollution �The amount of exotic materials entering the water body reaches a level that destroys the original usage �Water pollution can destroy the marine/groundwater/fresh surface water system

Black spots of the sea pollution 1. 2. 3. 4. Northeastern part of the

Black spots of the sea pollution 1. 2. 3. 4. Northeastern part of the Victoria Harbour Western coast of the Kowloon East Tolo Harbour Kowloon Bay

Causes 1. Residential sewage 2. Agricultural waste 3. Industrial sewage 4. Urban sewage 5.

Causes 1. Residential sewage 2. Agricultural waste 3. Industrial sewage 4. Urban sewage 5. Silt by soil erosion 6. Others : reclamation, oil spillage, acid rain, etc.

1. Rapid development of infrastructure and reclamation �Over West Kowloon: large scale reclamation projects

1. Rapid development of infrastructure and reclamation �Over West Kowloon: large scale reclamation projects �Reduces the size of harbour �Affects the ability of transport and tidal washing �Pollutants cannot be diluted or drifted away Reclamation in West Kowloon

2. Serious water pollution in the typhoon shelter �storm water drains receive raw sewage

2. Serious water pollution in the typhoon shelter �storm water drains receive raw sewage and industrial effluent via improper connections �Some discharges are from vessels themselves. �Some vessel users also dump garbage into the water. �It has stagnant water flow �Pollutants cannot be flushed out easily

3. Results of urbanization and industrialization �Increasing size of population and the improving living

3. Results of urbanization and industrialization �Increasing size of population and the improving living standard �Waste and industrial sewage increase �Affect the assimilate(同化) of the ocean �Most obvious in the sheltered bay and inner bay which have slow water current �The amount of pollutants has increased greatly

Economic impacts �Decrease in irrigation water: �Animal wastes / agro-chemicals contaminate ground water +

Economic impacts �Decrease in irrigation water: �Animal wastes / agro-chemicals contaminate ground water + streams �Farming productivity �Inputs + costs increase �Revenue

Economic impacts �Decrease in industrial water � water supply for 1. low-value added industries

Economic impacts �Decrease in industrial water � water supply for 1. low-value added industries � 2. water-consuming industries � For example, bleaching & dyeing, paper-making industry, textile & clothing �Daily operation is disrupted �Hinder industrial production � income for both the industry and the government

Social impacts �Import of water decreases �Import water from Dong Jiang �If river is

Social impacts �Import of water decreases �Import water from Dong Jiang �If river is polluted, in water import �Drinkable water � 2004 only 1/3 cities in PRD had an adequate water supply �Supply of water bills/ expenditure

�Affect human health �HK imports tonnes of agricultural produce from PRD every day �Water

�Affect human health �HK imports tonnes of agricultural produce from PRD every day �Water and soil pollution food safety problem affect our health

Environmental impacts �Eutrophication Destroying ecosystem �Nutrient increases Algal bloom Dissolved Oxygen level �form anaerobic

Environmental impacts �Eutrophication Destroying ecosystem �Nutrient increases Algal bloom Dissolved Oxygen level �form anaerobic condition marine life suffocate �loss of biodiversity �Eutrophication Human losses �Polluted water sources drinkable water �Loss of income : e. g. fishing industry

�Food chain effect �Biological magnification �Pollutants flow from 1 trophic level to another in

�Food chain effect �Biological magnification �Pollutants flow from 1 trophic level to another in the food chain �Threatened the ecosystem �Contaminated river = contains toxic chemicals + heavy metals �Accumulated in marine life cause diseases fish die

Sewerage Master Plans (SMPs) �provide a blueprint of the sewage infrastructure �required to collect

Sewerage Master Plans (SMPs) �provide a blueprint of the sewage infrastructure �required to collect sewage on a catchment-bycatchment basis and direct it to treatment facilities.

1. Sewage Charge 2. Trade Effluent Surcharge 1. SC is levied on all water

1. Sewage Charge 2. Trade Effluent Surcharge 1. SC is levied on all water users whose premises are connected to public sewers �The amount is calculated according to a prescribed unit rate and the volume of water supplied to the premises �(other than that supplied specifically for flushing purposes). 2. TES is the additional charge on top of SC � for the cost incurred in treating effluents of strength typically stronger than domestic sewage

The Harbour Area Treatment Scheme (HATS) 1. Sewage collection 2. Sewage treatment 3. Sewage

The Harbour Area Treatment Scheme (HATS) 1. Sewage collection 2. Sewage treatment 3. Sewage disposal strategy Stonecutters Island Sewage Treatment Works

Chromium pollution in Pearl River Delta � 21 st August 2011 �cancer-causing chemicals, chromium(鉻渣)

Chromium pollution in Pearl River Delta � 21 st August 2011 �cancer-causing chemicals, chromium(鉻渣) �dumped near a waterway in Yunnan Province (雲南) �Nanpan River(南盤江), which is upstream of the Pearl River system �The source of pollution is more than 2, 000 kilometres upstream from the mouth of the Pearl River.

Solid Waste Pollution

Solid Waste Pollution

Solid Waste �Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) = Integrated waste mainly from city �Sources: domestic,

Solid Waste �Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) = Integrated waste mainly from city �Sources: domestic, industrial, commercial, construction �MSW excludes construction waste �In 2009, HK produced 13000 tons of MSW and construction waste every day

Disposal of solid waste at landfills in 2010

Disposal of solid waste at landfills in 2010

Main causes in HK � 1. Household source (Newspaper, plastic lunch box, furniture) �

Main causes in HK � 1. Household source (Newspaper, plastic lunch box, furniture) � 2. Industrial source (Clay and ash, toxic chemicals, metal, glass) � 3. Agricultural source (Untreated livestock waste)

Disposal of solid waste at landfills in 2010

Disposal of solid waste at landfills in 2010

1. Increasing population �In 2008, the per capita disposal rate of municipal solid waste

1. Increasing population �In 2008, the per capita disposal rate of municipal solid waste was 1. 35 kg per day. �HK population : 7, 108, 100 in 2010 �Only 35% of Hong Kong’s domestic waste is recycled �Landfills under great pressure

2. Urbanization �Higher living standard more willing to buy �To attract customers, producers tend

2. Urbanization �Higher living standard more willing to buy �To attract customers, producers tend to place much emphasis on packaging �Increase usage of paper, cardboard, plastic, etc.

3. Industrialization �Improved production method �Productivity increased �Technological advanced �New products are introduced more

3. Industrialization �Improved production method �Productivity increased �Technological advanced �New products are introduced more frequently esp. the E-products �More e-waste is produced More than 70, 000 tones e-waste per year Less then 2% is properly recycled and treated

Effect on Health � Higher risk of respiratory problems �Breathing in polluted dust or

Effect on Health � Higher risk of respiratory problems �Breathing in polluted dust or particles � Risk of causing cancer and skin diseases �the leakage of toxic chemical of solid waste like lead �Eating fruits and vegetables that have been grown in polluted soil �the poisoned soil will come into contact with the skin � Chemical poisoning

Effect on Health �A breeding ground for disease �Create conditions favourable to the survival

Effect on Health �A breeding ground for disease �Create conditions favourable to the survival and growth of microbial pathogens when wastes ferment (發酵) �Direct handling of solid waste can result in various types of infectious and chronic � diseases with the waste workers being the most vulnerable �Hygienic problems as the smell attract the flies, mosquitoes and rats

Effect on Living Standard �Visual pollution �Ruin the beautiful scenery in the countryside �Noise

Effect on Living Standard �Visual pollution �Ruin the beautiful scenery in the countryside �Noise and Air Pollution �many heavy-duty vehicles moving in and out �Bad smell of solid waste �disturbe nearby residents �for example, the residents of Lohas Park (日出康城) always complain the smell come from the landfill site in Tsuen Kwan O

Effect on Society(Environment) �Contamination of our environment � Mainly caused by toxic chemicals �

Effect on Society(Environment) �Contamination of our environment � Mainly caused by toxic chemicals � Heavy metals in batteries, the chemicals in household cleaning � Especially E-waste contains dangerous heavy metals (such as lead and mercury) � Leach into the ground � Poison the soil and the water nearby �For example, leakage of impermeable liner in landfill will cause the chemicals leakage and soil contamination

�Water pollution �Runoff from landfills �Seepage from landfills into groundwater sources

�Water pollution �Runoff from landfills �Seepage from landfills into groundwater sources

�Ecosystem and food chain is upset �Caused by water pollution �Mercury accumulates in the

�Ecosystem and food chain is upset �Caused by water pollution �Mercury accumulates in the tissues of animals up the food chain until it reaches toxic levels in large fish such as tuna and swordfish �Roots of vegetation is poisoned and plants are killed by methane production �(**Decomposing organic material in solid waste can create methane, an explosive gas that contributes 25 times more than carbon dioxide per ton to global warming)

Solution Solid waste pollution

Solution Solid waste pollution

Landfill � it is one of the oldest waste treatment � it disposes waste

Landfill � it is one of the oldest waste treatment � it disposes waste by buried Steps 1)Weight collection vehicles collect waste from the city’ 2) Waste Collection Vehicle is Weighed at Weighbridge on Arrival 3) Waste Truck Unloads at the Tipping Face 4) The Vehicle Passes the Vehicle-Wash System after Unloading 5) The Vehicle is Weighed at Weighbridge on Departure

Advantages �matters deposited in the landfill are degraded naturally �it is more economical as

Advantages �matters deposited in the landfill are degraded naturally �it is more economical as the operating cost is lower and the procedures are simple

Disadvantages � Large scale deforestation is needed � the landfill pollutes the environment and

Disadvantages � Large scale deforestation is needed � the landfill pollutes the environment and destroys the ecosystem � some waste include toxic materials and these toxic substance may leak into soil � polluted water will leaked into soil � the landfill has certain life expectancy � Restriction to the land use development on the used landfill site � Buildings cannot be erected in at least 20 years � serious pollution to the surrounding environment e. g. noise and air pollution

Incineration �It is a kind of Thermal waste treatment �It involve combustion of organic

Incineration �It is a kind of Thermal waste treatment �It involve combustion of organic substance of solid waste �Advantages: �- it is possible to recycle the heat energy to generate renewable electricity �-it can reduce the volume of the solid waste to 10% of the orginal size � -lengthen the life of landfill �-It can decompose the part of the toxic materials into CO 2 �- limited space is used

Incineration Disadvantages �it is possible to release toxic materials and carcinogen, especially when there

Incineration Disadvantages �it is possible to release toxic materials and carcinogen, especially when there are operating problems of the incinerators �heavy metal, dioxins and so on �it will seriously hinder the health of nearby residents �hinder the natural scenery �the remaining ashes of the wastes will release more toxic substance than the ashes �large scale release of CO 2 which will speed up the greenhouse effect �Because of the higher toxic content , the cost of the waste treatment will be much higher, for around 8 times

Example � The Hong Kong government planned to set up an incinerator in Shek

Example � The Hong Kong government planned to set up an incinerator in Shek Kwa Chau to solve the rising solid waste problem � it will combust around 3000 tonnes of solid waste per day � the heat it released will be used to generate electricity of 100 thousand household Incinerator planned in Shek Kwu Chau

Education Advantages � to encourage the 4 R, Recycle, Reuse, Reduce, Replace � to

Education Advantages � to encourage the 4 R, Recycle, Reuse, Reduce, Replace � to save energy for treating the wastes � to reduce the emission of toxic and greenhouse gases during waste treatment � to conserve the natural resources � it is the minimum cost for solid waste disposal � it will promote the local economy by developing the recycling industry � it can save the space for the solid waste treatment plants and the landfill so reduce the landuse conflict � more job opportunities can be provided by the recycling industry , esp. for the low skilled labour

Disadvantages � possible pollution to the surrounding environment � accumulation of wastes � possible

Disadvantages � possible pollution to the surrounding environment � accumulation of wastes � possible release of toxic substance during the recycle � BFRs from the electronic devices like the LED monitors from different manufactures like HP, IBM and so on is easily found from the recycling areas. � It will damage the brain development and IQ of human � local recycling may not be economical � special technology is needed for some recycling � high labour cost, high land rent, insufficient supply of the recyclable materials � the Recycling industry may still require additional spaces

Example: Hong Kong Eco. Park �Aim: to promote the local recycling and environmental industry

Example: Hong Kong Eco. Park �Aim: to promote the local recycling and environmental industry �provide lower land rent to the recycling industries �Infrastructures are provided e. g. private pier , managing service �Build-in environmental protection measures can reduce the production cost of operators Phase 1&2 of Eco. Park